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Consumer choice. Utility film. level of happiness or satisfaction associated with alternative choices a term referring to the satisfaction received by a consumer from consuming a good or service utility maximization

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Consumer choice

Consumer choice


Utility film
Utilityfilm

  • level of happiness or satisfaction associated with alternative choices

  • a term referring to the satisfaction received by a consumer from consuming a good or service

  • utility maximization

    • The doctrine of utilitarianism saw the maximization of utility as a criterion for the organization of society. According to utilitarians, such as Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873), society should aim to maximize the total utility of individuals, aiming for "the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people".


Total and marginal utility
Total and marginal utility

  • total utility (TU) - the level of happiness derived from consuming the good

  • marginal utility (MU) - the additional utility that is received when an additional unit of a good is consumed


Marginal utility mu
Marginal utility (MU)

# of bananas total utility marginal utility

0 0

1 70

2 110

3 130

4 140

5 145

6 140

-

70

40

20

10

5

-5


Law of diminishing mu gossen s first law
Law of diminishing MU(Gossen's First Law)

  • law of diminishing marginal utility - marginal utility declines as more of a particular good is consumed in a given time period, ceteris paribus

  • even though marginal utility declines, total utility still increases as long as marginal utility is positive. Total utility will decline only if marginal utility is negative.


Diamond water paradox film film2
Diamond-water paradoxfilm, film2

  • As noted by Adam Smith, water is essential for life and has a low market price (often a price of zero) while diamonds are not as essential yet have a very high market price.

  • Smith’s explanation: “value in use” vs. “value in exchange”




Value in use and value in exchange
Value in use and value in exchange

  • value in use = total utility

  • value in exchange is related to marginal utility


Consumer equilibrium
Consumer equilibrium

1.

2. All income is spent.

The first condition listed above is sometimes referred to as the "equimarginal principle."


Consumer surplus
Consumer surplus

  • Individuals buy an item only if they receive a net gain from the purchase (i.e., total benefit exceeds opportunity cost).

  • This net gain is called “consumer surplus.”


Example
Example

  • Suppose that an individual buys 10 units of a good when the price is $5


Benefits and cost of first unit
Benefits and cost of first unit

  • Benefit = blue + green rectangles (=$9)

  • Cost = green rectangle (=$5)

  • Consumer surplus = blue rectangle (=$4)





Indifference curves
Indifference curves

  • Indifference curve – a graph of all of the combinations of goods that provide a given level of utility

  • Any two points on an indifference curve provide the same level of utility




Budget constraint film film2
Budget constraintfilmfilm2


Optim al consumption bundle
Optimalconsumption bundle

  • the point on the budget line that maximizes a consumer's total utility

  • the tangency of the budget line andan indifference curve


Bibliography
Bibliography

  • www.oswego.edu/~kane/eco101.htm

  • Czarny B. Podstawy ekonomii

  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utility


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