Social Interaction. The process by which people act and react in relation to othersSocial construction of reality
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1. Chapter 3 Social Interaction, Groups, and Social Structure
2. Social Interaction The process by which people act and react in relation to others
Social construction of reality – the process by which people shape reality through social interaction
Thomas Theorem – Situations defined as real become real in their consequences
3. Status Status – a social position
Status set – consists of all the statuses a person holds at a given time
Ascribed status – a social position given to a person by society
Achieved status – a social position that someone assumes voluntarily and that reflects ability and effort
4. Status Master status – a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life.
5. Roles Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
Role conflict - conflict among roles corresponding to two or more different statuses
Role strain – incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status
6. Role Exit The process by which people disengage from important social roles
Helen Ebaugh’s 4 stage model
1st Stage- Doubt
2nd Stage – Search for alternatives
3rd Stage – Action or departure
4th Stage – Creation of new identity
7. Erving Goffman Dramaturgical analysis – social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
Presentation of self – the effort of an individual to create specific impressions in the minds of others
8. Communication in Everyday Interactions Language
9. Types of Interactions Exchange – the process in which people transfer goods, services, and other items with one another.
Norms of reciprocity - A strong norm that says that if you do something for a person, then that person must do something of approximately equal social value in return.
10. Types of Interactions Cooperation – the process in which people work together to achieve shared goals
Competition – the process in which two or more parties attempt to obtain the same goal.
Conflict – the process in which people attempt to physically or socially vanquish one another.
Coercion – the process by which people compel other people to do something against their will.
11. Social Group Two or more people who identify and interact with one another
Category – a cluster of people who share a social trait such as age, sex, or race.
12. Types of groups Primary group- a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships
Secondary group- large and impersonal social groups devoted to some specific interest or activity
13. Types of groups Ingroup – a social group commanding a members esteem and loyalty
Outgroup – a social group toward which one feels competition or opposition
Reference group – a social group that serves as a point of reference for people making evaluations or decisions
14. Group Size Dyad – social group with 2 members
Triad – social group with 3 members
Coalition – small social group
Network – a web of social ties
15. Tönnies Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
16. Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach
17. Table 3–2: Stages of Sociocultural Evolution
18. Formal Organizations Large, secondary groups that are organized to achieve goals efficiently
19. Types of formal Organizations Utilitarian - primary motive is income
Normative – not for income but to pursue some worthwhile goal
20. Bureaucracy a form of organization based on explicit rules, with a clear, impersonal, and hierarchical authority structure
21. Weber’s Analysis of Bureaucracy Complex division of labor (specialization)
Hierarchy of authority
Rewards on the basis of performance
Extensive written records
22. Corporation A group that, through the legal process of incorporation, has been given the status of a separate and real social entity
23. Group Think Intense social pressure within a group for individuals to conform to group norms and abandon individual and critical thinking
People will compromise judgment to avoid being difficult
Solomon Asch’s experiment
Irving Janis – U.S. foreign policy errors are the result of group conformity
24. Types of Leadership Instrumental Leadership – group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks
Expressive Leadership – group leadership that focuses on collective well-being
25. Organizational Culture Classical theory (scientific management) workers are motivated almost entirely by economic rewards
Human relations approach – emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation within a bureaucracy