Social Interaction, Groups, and Social Structure

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Social Interaction. The process by which people act and react in relation to othersSocial construction of reality

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Social Interaction, Groups, and Social Structure

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1. Chapter 3 Social Interaction, Groups, and Social Structure

2. Social Interaction The process by which people act and react in relation to others Social construction of reality – the process by which people shape reality through social interaction Thomas Theorem – Situations defined as real become real in their consequences

3. Status Status – a social position Status set – consists of all the statuses a person holds at a given time Ascribed status – a social position given to a person by society Achieved status – a social position that someone assumes voluntarily and that reflects ability and effort

4. Status Master status – a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life.

5. Roles Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status Role conflict - conflict among roles corresponding to two or more different statuses Role strain – incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status

6. Role Exit The process by which people disengage from important social roles Helen Ebaugh’s 4 stage model 1st Stage- Doubt 2nd Stage – Search for alternatives 3rd Stage – Action or departure 4th Stage – Creation of new identity

7. Erving Goffman Dramaturgical analysis – social interaction in terms of theatrical performance Presentation of self – the effort of an individual to create specific impressions in the minds of others

8. Communication in Everyday Interactions Language Nonverbal Behavior

9. Types of Interactions Exchange – the process in which people transfer goods, services, and other items with one another. Norms of reciprocity - A strong norm that says that if you do something for a person, then that person must do something of approximately equal social value in return.

10. Types of Interactions Cooperation – the process in which people work together to achieve shared goals Competition – the process in which two or more parties attempt to obtain the same goal. Conflict – the process in which people attempt to physically or socially vanquish one another. Coercion – the process by which people compel other people to do something against their will.

11. Social Group Two or more people who identify and interact with one another Category – a cluster of people who share a social trait such as age, sex, or race.

12. Types of groups Primary group- a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships Secondary group- large and impersonal social groups devoted to some specific interest or activity

13. Types of groups Ingroup – a social group commanding a members esteem and loyalty Outgroup – a social group toward which one feels competition or opposition Reference group – a social group that serves as a point of reference for people making evaluations or decisions

14. Group Size Dyad – social group with 2 members Triad – social group with 3 members Coalition – small social group Network – a web of social ties

15. Tönnies Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

16. Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach

17. Table 3–2: Stages of Sociocultural Evolution

18. Formal Organizations Large, secondary groups that are organized to achieve goals efficiently

19. Types of formal Organizations Utilitarian - primary motive is income Normative – not for income but to pursue some worthwhile goal Coercive- involuntary

20. Bureaucracy a form of organization based on explicit rules, with a clear, impersonal, and hierarchical authority structure

21. Weber’s Analysis of Bureaucracy Complex division of labor (specialization) Hierarchy of authority Explicit rules Rewards on the basis of performance Extensive written records

22. Corporation A group that, through the legal process of incorporation, has been given the status of a separate and real social entity Limited liability

23. Group Think Intense social pressure within a group for individuals to conform to group norms and abandon individual and critical thinking People will compromise judgment to avoid being difficult Solomon Asch’s experiment Irving Janis – U.S. foreign policy errors are the result of group conformity

24. Types of Leadership Instrumental Leadership – group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks Expressive Leadership – group leadership that focuses on collective well-being

25. Organizational Culture Classical theory (scientific management) workers are motivated almost entirely by economic rewards Human relations approach – emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation within a bureaucracy

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