Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) for Airfield Pavements
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Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) for Airfield Pavements 2010 FAA Worldwide Airport Technology Transfer Conference . Brian Prowell Don Watson Graham Hurley Ray Brown. Acknowledgements.

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Brian prowell don watson graham hurley ray brown
Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) for Airfield Pavements2010 FAA Worldwide Airport Technology Transfer Conference

Brian Prowell

Don Watson

Graham Hurley

Ray Brown


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

  • This work was conducted as part of the Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology Program Project 04-04, Evaluation of Stone Matrix Asphalt for Airfield Pavements.


Background
Background

  • SMA designed in Germany in the 1960’s as mix resistant to studded tires

  • Adopted in US in 1991



Brian prowell don watson graham hurley ray brown

Aggregate SkeletonStone Matrix Asphalt Mix


Brian prowell don watson graham hurley ray brown

Aggregate SkeletonDense-Graded Mix


9 5 mm nmas sma surface texture
9.5 mm NMAS SMA Surface Texture


How is sma different
How is SMA Different?

  • Gradation

  • Asphalt Content

  • Dust Content

  • Stabilizing Additives


Brian prowell don watson graham hurley ray brown

SMA Performance in the USA

  • Marshall- 50 blow design has been used

  • Improved performance over HMA


Objectives of aaptp 04 04 study
Objectives of AAPTP 04-04 Study

The objectives:

  • Evaluate performance of SMA pavements

  • develop technical guidance for the FAA to implement SMA on U.S. airfields


Documented sma use on airfields
Documented SMA Use on Airfields

  • Australia

  • China

  • Europe

    • Belgium

    • Germany

    • Italy

    • Norway

  • United States




Rutting susceptibility
Rutting Susceptibility

  • Laboratory evaluations typically show SMA to have increased rutting susceptibility compared to HMA

  • Experiments to compare SMA and P401

  • Three tests: stability and flow, repeated-load creep, and Hamburg wheel-tracking



Repeated load permanent deformation to asses rutting potential
Repeated Load Permanent Deformation to Asses Rutting Potential

  • 100 mm diameter, 150 mm height

  • 6% air voids

  • 58 C (climatic high temp. - 6 C )

  • 20 psi confinement

  • 0.1 second load; 0.9 second rest

  • 100, 200, 350 psi vertical load

  • Continue for 10,000 cycles or until tertiary flow


Brian prowell don watson graham hurley ray brown
With the repeated load test the Potentialpermanent deformation performance of SMA mixtures and P401 mixtures were not significantly different.


Hamburg test
Hamburg Test Potential

Test combines rutting performance with moisture susceptibility

  • Uses a steel wheel 47 mm wide by 204 mm diameter

  • Load = 685 N (154 lb)

  • Full test is 20,000 cycles

  • Temperature - 50 C

  • VTM - 6 + 0.5 %

  • Tested under water




Fuel resistance
Fuel Resistance Potential

  • China has reported that SMA improves fuel resistance

  • AAPTP 05-02 evaluating fuel resistant sealers and binders

  • Citgo Fuel Resistance Test

    • Soaked in kerosene for 24 hours

    • Mass loss less than 5% good


Fuel resistance1
Fuel Resistance Potential


Deicer resistance immersion tensile test
Deicer Resistance PotentialImmersion Tensile Test


Two case studies
Two Case Studies Potential

  • Aviano AFB, Italy

  • Spangdahlem AFB, Germany


Aviano sma
Aviano Potential SMA

Constructed in 1999

Provided good performance up through 2010

Some water issues

More rubber build up

No grooving


Rubber build up on sma aviano air force base 2000
Rubber Build Up on SMA PotentialAviano Air Force Base 2000



Seepage of water from underneath aviano 2000
Seepage of Water from PotentialUnderneath, Aviano 2000


Draindown aviano 2000
Draindown, PotentialAviano 2000


Aviano 2006
Aviano, 2006 Potential


Aviano 2008
Aviano Potential 2008


Sma aviano
SMA Aviano Potential

  • Provided good performance to date

  • Good friction

  • Some water issues

  • No grooves


Based on good performance at aviano sma was used at spangdahlem in 2007
Based on good performance at PotentialAviano, SMA was used at Spangdahlem in 2007


Spangdahlem afb
Spangdahlem AFB Potential

  • Milled and overlaid with SMA in 2007

  • High density obtained

  • Some water vapor (blisters) problems



Spangdahlem 2006 cracking and condition of grooves
Spangdahlem Potential 2006, cracking and condition of grooves


Brian prowell don watson graham hurley ray brown
After mixture was milled, approximately 2 weeks of rainfall occurred causing the asphalt mixture to become soaked with moisture


Construction in 2007
Construction in 2007 occurred causing the asphalt mixture to become soaked with moisture

  • The contractor used two asphalt plants, two pavers, and up to 8 rollers

  • In place air voids were typically 3 to 4 percent


Spangdahlem 2007 moisture on surface of sma
Spangdahlem, 2007, moisture on surface of SMA occurred causing the asphalt mixture to become soaked with moisture


Spangdahlem 2007 blisters caused by water vapor
Spangdahlem, 2007, blisters caused by water vapor occurred causing the asphalt mixture to become soaked with moisture


Plans are underway to remove and replace the sma at spangdahlem
Plans are underway to remove and replace the SMA at occurred causing the asphalt mixture to become soaked with moistureSpangdahlem


Summary of sma p401 comparison
Summary of SMA / P401 Comparison occurred causing the asphalt mixture to become soaked with moisture

1Based on laboratory tests performed as part of this study.

2Based on review of the literature or in-service performance.


Recommendations
Recommendations occurred causing the asphalt mixture to become soaked with moisture

  • SMA could cost 82 to 94 percent more than dense-graded mixes and still be cost effective on a life-cycle basis.

  • SMA is not typically suited to small quantity production

  • 65 gyrations recommended as alternative to 50-blow Marshall


The complete report is available at www aaptp us

Questions? occurred causing the asphalt mixture to become soaked with moisture

The complete report is available at: www.AAPTP.US

Contact Information for authors:

Ray Brown ray.brown@usace.army.mil

Brian Prowell Brian.AMSLLC@Charterinternet.com

Don Watson Watsode@auburn.edu

Graham Hurley Graham.AMSLLC@Charterinternet.com


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