National sexuality education standards can their current value be enhanced
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National Sexuality Education Standards: Can their current value be enhanced?. Dan Dowhower. Introduction. December of 2008, forty experts a two-day meeting = National Sexuality Education Standards

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National sexuality education standards can their current value be enhanced

National Sexuality Education Standards: Can their current value be enhanced?

Dan Dowhower


Introduction
Introduction

  • December of 2008, forty experts a two-day meeting = National Sexuality Education Standards

  • Essential minimum, core content for sexuality education that is developmentally and age-appropriate for students in grades Kindergarten through grade 12

  • Content and skills subject areas of Anatomy and Physiology, Puberty and Adolescent Development, Identity, Pregnancy and Reproduction, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV, Healthy Relationships, and Personal Safety .

  • A median total of 17.2 hours is devoted to instruction in HIV, pregnancy and STD prevention: 3.1 hours in elementary, 6 hours in middle and 8.1 hours in high school.  


Areas of concern
Areas of Concern

  • Utilizing individual level theory that assumes adolescents have the motivation and opportunity to reproduce these behaviors outside of the school setting

  • Present standards generally subscribe to a rational model of decision-making and assume all individuals respond similarly to the same kind of messages

  • Standards place the complete onus of responsibility on the school system for teaching sexuality education and discount the value of family and community involvement

  • Standards are written as a one size-fits-all


Scope of problem
Scope of Problem

  • 1 in 16 black men and 1 in 30 black women will be diagnosed with HIV infection over the course of their lifetime (CDC, 2010)

  • African Americans account for only 13.4% of the U.S. population.

  • Black teens (13-19) account for 69% of the 38% of infected African American.

  • Current research efforts demonstrate that social norms, social networks and gender roles need to be address to mitigate the impact of this epidemic

  • The current standards are a silo and only address the epidemic unidimensionally.

  • As one begins to unpack how HIV infection is distributed within the black community it is clear that interventions will have to be multi-level and tailored


So where do we go from here
So where do we go from here?

  • Triadic Theory of Influence – overlay a new theoretical framework to enhance current effort

    • Recognize the full context of health behavior

    • Individual Stream:

      • Go beyond the function of sexuality and understand the role of sex for adolescents

    • Social Stream:

      • Family – a major role in adolescent lives

      • Peer – support the role of sex

      • Role Models are highly valued

    • Cultural Stream

      • Religion – highly influential but variable

      • Oppression and Discrimination – has been argued to influence role of sex

      • Policy – a general influence due to it’s great variability across states


A triadic set of standards
A Triadic Set of Standards

  • Development of translation plan

    • Minimum standards for school curricula

    • Minimum standards for family, peer and community engagement

    • Minimum standards for policy and recognition of critical extraneous variables such as oppression and discrimination


Examples of state policy variablity
Examples of State Policy Variablity

  • According to the Guttamacher Institute (2012), there is great variability across state policy and requirements around sex education.

    • only 12 states require that the sex education instruction be medically accurate,

    • 8 states require that the program provide instruction that is appropriate for a student’s cultural background and not be biased against any race, sex or ethnicity,

    • 35 states and DC allow parents to remove their children from instruction.


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