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PATIENT CARE IN RADIOGRAPHY. CLASS #1 REFERENCES; ERHLICH. RADIATION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. “When the term ‘radiation’ is used, it generally evokes concern and a sense of danger” Introduction to Radiology Technology and Patient Care, Adler and Carlton 1999. WILHELM CONRAD ROENTGEN

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patient care in radiography

PATIENT CARE IN RADIOGRAPHY

CLASS #1

REFERENCES;

ERHLICH

radiation

RADIATION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

“When the term ‘radiation’ is used, it generally evokes concern and a sense of danger”

Introduction to Radiology Technology and Patient Care, Adler and Carlton 1999

history nov 8 1895
WILHELM CONRAD ROENTGEN

SIR WILLIAM CROOKS

”X”

WILLIAM COOLIDGE

H.C.SNOOKS

THOMAS EDISON

CLARENCE DALLY

GEORGE EASTMAN

DISCOVERED X-RAYS

CATHODE RAY TUBE

UNKNOWN ENERGY

HOT CATHODE RAY TUBE

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY

FLUOROSCOPY

ROENTGEN MARTYR

PLASTIC FILM

HISTORY NOV. 8, 1895
radiation injuries early 20 th century
RADIATION INJURIESEARLY 20TH CENTURY
  • SKIN BURNS
  • HAIR LOSS
  • ANEMIA
  • TO BOTH PT AND DOCTOR
history of radiographers
HISTORY OF RADIOGRAPHERS
  • PHYSICISTS
  • OJT (TECHNICIANS)
  • HOSPITAL BASED PROGRAMS
  • COMMUNITY COLLEGES
how are x rays produced http www oucom ohio edu dbms witmer anatomy immersion htm
HOW ARE X-RAYS PRODUCED?http://www.oucom.ohio.edu/dbms-witmer/anatomy_immersion.htm
x ray production an overview
X-RAY PRODUCTIONAN OVERVIEW
  • VACUUM TUBE----WHY?
  • SOURCE OF ELECTRONS (TUNGSTON)WHY?
  • TARGET (TUNGSTON) WHY?
  • HIGH POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE(VOLTAGE) WHY?
rad terms facts
RAD. TERMS/FACTS
  • ELECTRON CLOUD
  • SPACE CHARGE
  • 99% HEAT
  • 1% X-RAY
  • WAVELENGTHS
    • AMPLITUDE
    • FREQUENCY
      • SHORTER THE WAVELENGTH ,THE HIGHER THE FREQUENCY
electromagnetic radiation
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
  • GAMMA
  • X-RAY
  • VISIBLE LIGHT
  • MICROWAVES
  • RADIO WAVES
  • COMPARE THE WAVELENGTH (SHORTER OR LONGER?) THE FREQUENCY (LONGER OR SHORTER) OF THESE ENERGIES TO X-RAYS
x ray vs visible light
TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINES

AFFECT PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSIONS

CAN PRODUCE HARMFUL EFFECTS TO BODY

TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINES

AFFECT PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSIONS

CAN PRODUCE HARMFUL EFFECTS TO BODY

X-RAY VS VISIBLE LIGHT
x ray vs visible light1
X-RAY VS VISIBLE LIGHT
  • WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?
slide15
Ionization is the process of when a neutral atom loses or gains an electron. When the loss or gain occurs, a net charge is produced. Ionization can disrupt matter.
sources of ionizing radiation bushong pgs 5 6
MAN-MADE

X-RAYS

NUCLEAR POWER /WASTE

NATURAL

COSMIC

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN EARTH

POTASSIUM 40

SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION Bushong, pgs 5-6
the x ray beam
Small area of target

Cone shaped

Primary beam

Radiation field

Central ray

collimator

Scatter

Why is called that?

THE X-RAY BEAM
return to scavenger hunt results and review
RETURN TO SCAVENGER HUNT RESULTS AND REVIEW
  • Add the following to your scavenger hunt notes
  • DISTANCE
    • SID AND OID
  • DENSITY
    • mA, mAs
  • CONTRAST
    • kVp
units of measurement in radiography traditional si unit
ROENTGEN

RAD

REM

CURIE

MILLI- 1000TH OF A UNIT

COULOUMB

GRAY

SIEVERT

BECQUEREL

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT IN RADIOGRAPHYTRADITIONAL SI UNIT
weighting factor
Weighting Factor
  • Useful for measuring occupational dose
  • Look at the table 1-3 on page 29…which of these ionizing radiation do you think would produce the most harm?
  • Why?
brief overview of radiobiology
Brief overview of radiobiology
  • Laws of Bergonie and Tribondeau pg 30 in Ehrlich
    • Age
    • Differentiation
    • Metabolic rate
    • Mitotic rate
  • Effects
    • Short term/Long term somatic
    • Genetic
keeping safe
KEEPING SAFE
  • We just discussed a method of recording radiation…how do we keep this exposure to its lowest level
  • QUIT THE PROGRAM??????
  • No…there are better ways!!!!!
measuring radiation for the radiographer
MEASURING RADIATION FOR THE RADIOGRAPHER
  • FILM BADGE
  • TLD
  • OSL
  • CONTROL
  • 5 rem per year
  • 1 rem x age is cumulative dose limit
cardinal principles of protection
Cardinal principles of protection
  • TIME
  • DISTANCE
  • SHIELDING
  • DESCRIBE HOW THESE APPLY TO BOTH PATIENT AND OCCUPATIONAL WORKER?
  • PRIMARY BEAM AND CR
alara
ALARA
  • AS
  • LOW
  • AS
  • REASONABLY
  • ACHIEVABLE
patient protection
PATIENT PROTECTION
  • ERRORS
  • REPEATS
  • COLLIMATION
  • HIGHEST KVP. WHY?
  • FAST SCREEN/FILM
  • AT LEAST 40” SID
patients are frightened about radiation
Patients are frightened about radiation
  • What can we say or do to educate them?
occupational protection
OCCUPATIONAL PROTECTION
  • YOU TELL ME!
  • .5MM LEAD SHOULD ATTENUATE 90% OF RADIATION AT 75 kVp
  • Thyroid shields
what do radiographer s do

WHAT DO RADIOGRAPHER’S DO?

WHAT IS OUR SCOPE OF PRACTICE?

chapter 12 ehrlich
CHAPTER 12, EHRLICH
  • In addition to radiographers being trained in the OR, in trauma radiography and in mobile radiography they can cross train in
  • SPECIAL IMAGING MODALITIES
    • CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY
    • CT
    • MRI
    • MAMMOGRAPHY
    • DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL SONOGRAPHY
    • NUCLEAR MEDICINE
    • POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY
the profession
THE PROFESSION
  • ACRONYMS YOU NEED TO KNOW
    • PACS
    • ASRT
    • ARRT
    • ACR
    • CARE
    • JCAHO
    • JRCERT
describe the type of patient you may have to x ray
DESCRIBE THE TYPE OF PATIENT YOU MAY HAVE TO X-RAY
  • BODY HABITUS
  • PHYSICAL CONDITION
  • EMOTIONAL CONDITION
  • AGE
  • OTHER FACTORS
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