Patient care in radiography
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PATIENT CARE IN RADIOGRAPHY. CLASS #1 REFERENCES; ERHLICH. RADIATION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. “When the term ‘radiation’ is used, it generally evokes concern and a sense of danger” Introduction to Radiology Technology and Patient Care, Adler and Carlton 1999. WILHELM CONRAD ROENTGEN

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PATIENT CARE IN RADIOGRAPHY

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PATIENT CARE IN RADIOGRAPHY

CLASS #1

REFERENCES;

ERHLICH


RADIATION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

“When the term ‘radiation’ is used, it generally evokes concern and a sense of danger”

Introduction to Radiology Technology and Patient Care, Adler and Carlton 1999


WILHELM CONRAD ROENTGEN

SIR WILLIAM CROOKS

”X”

WILLIAM COOLIDGE

H.C.SNOOKS

THOMAS EDISON

CLARENCE DALLY

GEORGE EASTMAN

DISCOVERED X-RAYS

CATHODE RAY TUBE

UNKNOWN ENERGY

HOT CATHODE RAY TUBE

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY

FLUOROSCOPY

ROENTGEN MARTYR

PLASTIC FILM

HISTORY NOV. 8, 1895


RADIATION INJURIESEARLY 20TH CENTURY

  • SKIN BURNS

  • HAIR LOSS

  • ANEMIA

  • TO BOTH PT AND DOCTOR


HISTORY OF RADIOGRAPHERS

  • PHYSICISTS

  • OJT (TECHNICIANS)

  • HOSPITAL BASED PROGRAMS

  • COMMUNITY COLLEGES


OVERVIEW OF RADIOLOGY AND RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURESWHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?


HOW ARE X-RAYS PRODUCED?http://www.oucom.ohio.edu/dbms-witmer/anatomy_immersion.htm


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BzFmG4RSMI


X-RAY PRODUCTIONAN OVERVIEW

  • VACUUM TUBE----WHY?

  • SOURCE OF ELECTRONS (TUNGSTON)WHY?

  • TARGET (TUNGSTON) WHY?

  • HIGH POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE(VOLTAGE) WHY?


RAD. TERMS/FACTS

  • ELECTRON CLOUD

  • SPACE CHARGE

  • 99% HEAT

  • 1% X-RAY

  • WAVELENGTHS

    • AMPLITUDE

    • FREQUENCY

      • SHORTER THE WAVELENGTH ,THE HIGHER THE FREQUENCY


ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

  • GAMMA

  • X-RAY

  • VISIBLE LIGHT

  • MICROWAVES

  • RADIO WAVES

  • COMPARE THE WAVELENGTH (SHORTER OR LONGER?) THE FREQUENCY (LONGER OR SHORTER) OF THESE ENERGIES TO X-RAYS


TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINES

AFFECT PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSIONS

CAN PRODUCE HARMFUL EFFECTS TO BODY

TRAVEL IN STRAIGHT LINES

AFFECT PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSIONS

CAN PRODUCE HARMFUL EFFECTS TO BODY

X-RAY VS VISIBLE LIGHT


X-RAY VS VISIBLE LIGHT

  • WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?


IONIZATIONIT’S NOT AS BAD AS IT SOUNDS!!!!


  • Ionization is the process of when a neutral atom loses or gains an electron. When the loss or gain occurs, a net charge is produced. Ionization can disrupt matter.


MAN-MADE

X-RAYS

NUCLEAR POWER /WASTE

NATURAL

COSMIC

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN EARTH

POTASSIUM 40

SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION Bushong, pgs 5-6


Small area of target

Cone shaped

Primary beam

Radiation field

Central ray

collimator

Scatter

Why is called that?

THE X-RAY BEAM


RETURN TO SCAVENGER HUNT RESULTS AND REVIEW

  • Add the following to your scavenger hunt notes

  • DISTANCE

    • SID AND OID

  • DENSITY

    • mA, mAs

  • CONTRAST

    • kVp


ROENTGEN

RAD

REM

CURIE

MILLI- 1000TH OF A UNIT

COULOUMB

GRAY

SIEVERT

BECQUEREL

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT IN RADIOGRAPHYTRADITIONALSI UNIT


Weighting Factor

  • Useful for measuring occupational dose

  • Look at the table 1-3 on page 29…which of these ionizing radiation do you think would produce the most harm?

  • Why?


Brief overview of radiobiology

  • Laws of Bergonie and Tribondeau pg 30 in Ehrlich

    • Age

    • Differentiation

    • Metabolic rate

    • Mitotic rate

  • Effects

    • Short term/Long term somatic

    • Genetic


KEEPING SAFE

  • We just discussed a method of recording radiation…how do we keep this exposure to its lowest level

  • QUIT THE PROGRAM??????

  • No…there are better ways!!!!!


MEASURING RADIATION FOR THE RADIOGRAPHER

  • FILM BADGE

  • TLD

  • OSL

  • CONTROL

  • 5 rem per year

  • 1 rem x age is cumulative dose limit


Cardinal principles of protection

  • TIME

  • DISTANCE

  • SHIELDING

  • DESCRIBE HOW THESE APPLY TO BOTH PATIENT AND OCCUPATIONAL WORKER?

  • PRIMARY BEAM AND CR


ALARA

  • AS

  • LOW

  • AS

  • REASONABLY

  • ACHIEVABLE


PATIENT PROTECTION

  • ERRORS

  • REPEATS

  • COLLIMATION

  • HIGHEST KVP. WHY?

  • FAST SCREEN/FILM

  • AT LEAST 40” SID


Patients are frightened about radiation

  • What can we say or do to educate them?


OCCUPATIONAL PROTECTION

  • YOU TELL ME!

  • .5MM LEAD SHOULD ATTENUATE 90% OF RADIATION AT 75 kVp

  • Thyroid shields


ROSE AEHLE RT (R,M)

Appendix A


WHAT DO RADIOGRAPHER’S DO?

WHAT IS OUR SCOPE OF PRACTICE?


CHAPTER 12, EHRLICH

  • In addition to radiographers being trained in the OR, in trauma radiography and in mobile radiography they can cross train in

  • SPECIAL IMAGING MODALITIES

    • CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY

    • CT

    • MRI

    • MAMMOGRAPHY

    • DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL SONOGRAPHY

    • NUCLEAR MEDICINE

    • POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY


THE PROFESSION

  • ACRONYMS YOU NEED TO KNOW

    • PACS

    • ASRT

    • ARRT

    • ACR

    • CARE

    • JCAHO

    • JRCERT


DESCRIBE THE TYPE OF PATIENT YOU MAY HAVE TO X-RAY

  • BODY HABITUS

  • PHYSICAL CONDITION

  • EMOTIONAL CONDITION

  • AGE

  • OTHER FACTORS


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