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4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP. 2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules. Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 37 Topic: Chemical Energy and ATP Essential Question : How are some organisms able to survive without sunlight and photosynthesis?.

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slide1

4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP

2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules

  • Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 37
  • Topic: Chemical Energy and ATP
  • Essential Question:

How are some organisms able to survive without sunlight and photosynthesis?

How are some organisms able to survive without sunlight and photosynthesis?

Key Concept: All cells need chemical energy

slide3

The phospholipid bilayer of a cellular membrane is shown in the diagram above. Active transport is the primary function of the structure labeled

"A".

"B".

"C".

"D".

slide4

The phospholipid bilayer of a cellular membrane is shown in the diagram above. Active transport is the primary function of the structure labeled

"A".

"B".

"C".

"D".

slide5

Which of the following statements is true about cell structure?

  • Cells are enclosed by a thin, single layer of phospholipids and protein molecules
  • Cells are enclosed by a solid layer, or cell wall, for support
  • Cells are enclosed with semipermeable membranes
  • Cell casings allow molecules to pass unhindered in or out of the cell
slide6

Which of the following statements is true about cell structure?

  • Cells are enclosed by a thin, single layer of phospholipids and protein molecules
  • Cells are enclosed by a solid layer, or cell wall, for support
  • Cells are enclosed with semipermeable membranes
  • Cell casings allow molecules to pass unhindered in or out of the cell
slide7

The table above shows the characteristics of four different single–celled organisms. Which of the organism(s) are prokaryotic?

organism W and organism Z

organism X and organism Y

organism X only

organism Y only

slide8

The table above shows the characteristics of four different single–celled organisms. Which of the organism(s) are prokaryotic?

organism W and organism Z

organism X and organism Y

organism X only

organism Y only

slide9

Osmosis occurs in living organisms as water moves across the cellular membrane. An environment is hypotonic when the concentration of solutes in the environment is less than the concentration of solutes inside the cell.In hypotonic environments, water flows

inside and outside the cell at equal rates.

from the cell into the environment.

from the environment into the cell.

from high concentration of solutes to low concentration of solutes.

slide10

Osmosis occurs in living organisms as water moves across the cellular membrane. An environment is hypotonic when the concentration of solutes in the environment is less than the concentration of solutes inside the cell.In hypotonic environments, water flows

inside and outside the cell at equal rates.

from the cell into the environment.

from the environment into the cell.

from high concentration of solutes to low concentration of solutes.

slide11

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum ____________

  • modifies lipids
  • modifies proteins
  • synthesizes ribosomes
  • synthesizes proteins
slide12

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum ____________

  • modifies lipids
  • modifies proteins
  • synthesizes ribosomes
  • synthesizes proteins
slide14

P. 36

ATP and ADP picture

top of pg 36
Top of pg. 36
  • Do energy drinks or power bars do something different from any other foods you eat?
    • If so, what do they do? (how do they affect you?)
    • What causes them to do this? (ingredients?)

They may contain certain types of carbohydrates that can be used more quickly and so supply energy faster.

Note: An energy bar provides no more energy than a bagel or banana

california standard
California Standard

1.f- Know that useable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

ch 4 in a nutshell
Ch. 4 In a Nutshell…
  • *The cells of ALL organisms need chemical energy for ALL of their processes.
  • Plants absorb energy from sunlight
    • Some of that energy is stored in sugars (Photosynthesis)
  • Cells break down sugars to produce usable chemical energy for their functions (Cellular Respiration)
  • *Without organisms that make sugars, living things on Earth could not survive
slide19

The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by adenosine triphosphate aka ATP.

  • ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to fuel all cellular functions

Remember from Ch. 2: Energy is released when bonds break!

  • When the unstable 3rd phosphate breaks off- A blast of energy is released!
slide20

phosphate removed

-

+

  • Adenosine diphosphate aka ADP is a lower-energy molecule than ATP with only 2 phosphates.
  • ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added
atp and adp
ATP and ADP

Bonds break- releasing energy

+

-

Draw and label pg. 36

slide22
Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds.
    • Carbohydrates and lipids (fats) are the most important energy sources in foods you eat
slide23
Foods that you eat do NOT contain ATP.
  • First the food must be digested, which breaks down food into smaller molecules that can make ATP.
slide24
Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP.

adenosine

triphosphate

tri=3

adenosine

diphosphate

di=2

ATP

ADP

slide25
Fats store the most energy.
  • 80 percent of the energy in your body is stored in fat
  • Proteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP.

(Fats)

point to ponder pg 36
Point to Ponder (Pg. 36)
  • If we get our energy from food….
    • Where does our food get its energy?
      • Hint: Your food is probably a plant or animal
  • Plants get their energy from the sun
  • Animals get their energy from the plants they eat
  • Ipso Facto: We all get our energy by using sunlight

through PHOTOSYNTHESIS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

a few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy
A few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy.
  • Some organisms live in places that never get sunlight.
  • In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to build carbon-based molecules.
    • uses chemical energy instead of light energy
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