Agenda 3792105
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Agenda. Organizing Data Coding Data reduction Exercise: Managing data in SPSS. Coding. Moving from questions posed to respondents to data for analysis Assigning codes (usually numbers) to raw research materials Questionnaires Closed-ended responses Open-ended responses Archival material.

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Agenda

Agenda

  • Organizing Data

    • Coding

    • Data reduction

  • Exercise: Managing data in SPSS


Coding

Coding

  • Moving from questions posed to respondents to data for analysis

  • Assigning codes (usually numbers) to raw research materials

    • Questionnaires

    • Closed-ended responses

    • Open-ended responses

    • Archival material


Agenda 3792105

Each column is one variable

Each row is one case (e.g., respondent)


Data reduction

Data reduction

  • Reducing information available in raw data by grouping respondents into fewer categories

    • Grouping age into ranges (under 18, 19-29, 30-39, etc.)

  • Reduced data do not convey as much information

    • Knowing someone is “under 18” does not convey actual age


Why reduce data

Why reduce data?

  • May be easier to analyze

  • May be appropriate to given research question

    • Values above or below some threshold (e.g., a poverty line)

    • Type concepts (e.g., young, middle, older age)

  • May be only reasonable approach

    • Content analysis

    • Distribution strongly suggests categories


Reliable coding

Reliable coding

  • Use considerable care

  • Minimize number of “translation” steps

  • Double check all entered data

    • Random record checks

    • Double-entry

    • Close scrutiny of distributions, missing data

  • Remember: Noisy data will increase

Type II error


Managing data

Managing data

  • Most use specialized computing packages (SPSS, SAS, BMDP, etc.)

    • Data entered into matrix

    • Variables and values fully labeled

    • Data re-coded as necessary for analysis

    • Data carefully inspected for univariate properties

  • Introduction to SPSS

    • Workshops: Organizing data, descriptive statistics, measuring relationships

    • Sample data available on course website


For thursday

For Thursday

  • Descriptive statistics

  • Norusis

    • Review Ch. 4-5

    • Read Ch. 6

  • Workshop schedule

    • Today (organizing data, descriptives)

    • None Thursday

    • Tuesday, Nov. 29 (descriptives, relationships)

    • Thursday, Dec. 1 (“third variables”)


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