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The process of counting the ridges that touch or cross the line of count drawn between the delta and core of loop patterns. A white space must always intervene between the delta and the first ridge to be counted.
The number of ridges intervening between the delta and core.
Whorl patterns are counted only if they appear in the little fingers of both hands. If there is no loop in the eight fingers (little fingers not included), the first whorl is to be counted to obtain the key classification formula
The process of coursing or tracing the ridge that originates from the left delta flowing towards the right delta or near the point and determining the number of intervening ridges between the traced ridge and right delta to constitute the three subdivisions such as inner, meeting and outer presented by capital I, M, O.
When the deltas have been located, the tracing starts on the ridge emanating from the lower side or point of the left delta until the point nearest or opposite the right delta is reached. Then the number of ridges intervening between the traced ridge and the right delta are counted to determine whether it is inner (I), meet or meeting (M) or outer (O).
If the traced ridge ends without reaching the right side, it is necessary to drop perpendicularly to a point on a ridge directly below and continue the tracing up to the relative point nearest the right delta.
If the traced ridge is a bifurcation, follow the lower branch and if this branch ends abruptly, drop on the next ridge until tracing is completed.
If the traced ridge reached the relative point nearest the right delta and goes above or inside it and there are 3 or more intervening ridges between the traced ridge and the right delta, it is considered as an inner whorl.
A whorl pattern is considered meet or meeting if the traced ridge reached the relative point nearest the right delta and goes above/ inside; or below/ outside with 1 or 2 intervening ridges between such delta and traced ridge, or if the traced ridge started from the left delta and runs directly to the right delta.
A whorl pattern is considered outer if the traced ridge reached the relative point near the right delta and goes below or outside such delta with 3 or more ridges intervening between such delta and traced ridge.