Superlatives
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Superlatives. There are three ways to form the superlative. Most adjectives use the following superlative form: 1. find the base inimicus , inimica , inimicum inimic --- (drop the –a or -is to get the base) 2. add - issim - to the base of the adjective inimicissim ---

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Superlatives

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Superlatives

Superlatives


There are three ways to form the superlative

There are three ways to form the superlative

  • Most adjectives use the following superlative form:

    • 1. find the base

      inimicus, inimica, inimicum

      inimic--- (drop the –a or -is to get the base)

    • 2. add -issim- to the base of the adjective

      inimicissim---

    • 3. add 1-2nd declension endings to the –issim-

      inimicissimospueros

    • 4. when you add the endings they must agree with the noun in gender, number and case


Another example

another example

She is a very irritating girl

Estpuellamolestissima

molestus, molesta, molestum drop the a

molest---

add the issim---

Make the ending agree with puella

molestissima


Do the endings always match

Do the endings always match?

I was fighting with a very strong soldier.

Cum fortissimo militepugnabam

fortis, forte get the base by dropping the –is

fort ---

add -issim- fortissim-

make the ending agree with milite

fortisssimo


Important points

Important Points

  • What declension endings are used for ALL superlative forms?

    1st and 2nd

  • What determines the case, number and gender of the ending for the adjective ?

    The noun it modifies.

  • Do superlative forms always match the noun they modify?

  • NO


Translations

TRANSLATIONS

  • There are three ways to translate a superlative

  • most…

  • very…

  • ----est


Try these

Try these

  • a very friendly dog (acc. singular)

    canis, canis; amicus, amica, amicum

  • a most irritating woman (dat. sing.)

    molestus, molesta, molestum; femina, feminae

  • the happiest days (acc. pl.)

    laetus, laeta, laetum; dies, diei (this noun is masc.)


Answers

ANSWERS

  • canemamicissimum

  • feminaemolestissimae

  • laetissimos dies


Quam used with a superlative form

QUAM used with a superlative form

  • When you put quam next to the superlative adjective it indicates the highest degree possible.

  • Translate the adjective using the phrase

    as------as possible

  • When you do this you no longer use most, very or ---est


Examples

EXAMPLES

  • quam laetissima sum

    I am as happy as possible


The second way to form superlatives

The second way to form superlatives

  • Only adjectives that end in –er in the masculine, singular follow these steps.

    Words like acer, acris; miser, misera, miserum

  • Take the word that ends in –er

    acer

  • Do NOT drop anything

    acer

  • Add –rim-

    acerrim--

  • Use 1st-2nddecl endings

    accerrimosmilites


Translations are the same

Translations are the same

  • acerrimosmilites = very fierce soldiers

  • pulcherrimamurbem = the most beautiful

    city

  • miserrimusservus = very miserable slave


Be careful

BE CAREFUL

  • Notice that for these adjectives you do NOT get the base of the adjective

  • You always use the word that ends in -er


Put the following into the superlative

Put the following into the superlative

  • The most miserable soldiers – nom. pl.

  • A very beautiful woman - acc. sing.

  • The swiftest horse - dat. sing.


Answers1

ANSWERS

  • militesmiserrimos

  • feminampulcherrimam

  • equocelerrimo


Six words that have their own superlative

Six words that have their own superlative

  • There are six words that form the superlative in their own way.

  • The six words are:

  • difficilis

  • facilis

  • dissimilis

  • similis

  • humilis

  • gracilis


These six words use the following

These six words use the following:

  • Find the base

  • Add –lim-

  • Use 1st-2nddecl endings

  • A most difficult day – accusative singular

  • difficillimum diem

  • difficil - the base

  • difficillim – the base + lim—

  • difficillimum – the base + lim + ending which agrees with diem


Three ways to form superlative

Three Ways to form Superlative

Most Adjectives

  • Find the base

  • Add issim—

  • Add 1st – 2nddecl endings

Adjectives ending in –er

  • Use the word ending in –er

  • Add -rim—

  • Add 1st-2nddecl endings

    Six Special Words

  • Find base

  • Add –lim-

  • Add 1st – 2nddecl endings


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