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Superlatives. There are three ways to form the superlative. Most adjectives use the following superlative form: 1. find the base inimicus , inimica , inimicum inimic --- (drop the –a or -is to get the base) 2. add - issim - to the base of the adjective inimicissim ---

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there are three ways to form the superlative
There are three ways to form the superlative
  • Most adjectives use the following superlative form:
    • 1. find the base

inimicus, inimica, inimicum

inimic--- (drop the –a or -is to get the base)

    • 2. add -issim- to the base of the adjective

inimicissim---

    • 3. add 1-2nd declension endings to the –issim-

inimicissimospueros

    • 4. when you add the endings they must agree with the noun in gender, number and case
another example
another example

She is a very irritating girl

Estpuellamolestissima

molestus, molesta, molestum drop the a

molest---

add the issim---

Make the ending agree with puella

molestissima

do the endings always match
Do the endings always match?

I was fighting with a very strong soldier.

Cum fortissimo militepugnabam

fortis, forte get the base by dropping the –is

fort ---

add -issim- fortissim-

make the ending agree with milite

fortisssimo

important points
Important Points
  • What declension endings are used for ALL superlative forms?

1st and 2nd

  • What determines the case, number and gender of the ending for the adjective ?

The noun it modifies.

  • Do superlative forms always match the noun they modify?
  • NO
translations
TRANSLATIONS
  • There are three ways to translate a superlative
  • most…
  • very…
  • ----est
try these
Try these
  • a very friendly dog (acc. singular)

canis, canis; amicus, amica, amicum

  • a most irritating woman (dat. sing.)

molestus, molesta, molestum; femina, feminae

  • the happiest days (acc. pl.)

laetus, laeta, laetum; dies, diei (this noun is masc.)

answers
ANSWERS
  • canemamicissimum
  • feminaemolestissimae
  • laetissimos dies
quam used with a superlative form
QUAM used with a superlative form
  • When you put quam next to the superlative adjective it indicates the highest degree possible.
  • Translate the adjective using the phrase

as------as possible

  • When you do this you no longer use most, very or ---est
examples
EXAMPLES
  • quam laetissima sum

I am as happy as possible

the second way to form superlatives
The second way to form superlatives
  • Only adjectives that end in –er in the masculine, singular follow these steps.

Words like acer, acris; miser, misera, miserum

  • Take the word that ends in –er

acer

  • Do NOT drop anything

acer

  • Add –rim-

acerrim--

  • Use 1st-2nddecl endings

accerrimosmilites

translations are the same
Translations are the same
  • acerrimosmilites = very fierce soldiers
  • pulcherrimamurbem = the most beautiful

city

  • miserrimusservus = very miserable slave
be careful
BE CAREFUL
  • Notice that for these adjectives you do NOT get the base of the adjective
  • You always use the word that ends in -er
put the following into the superlative
Put the following into the superlative
  • The most miserable soldiers – nom. pl.
  • A very beautiful woman - acc. sing.
  • The swiftest horse - dat. sing.
answers1
ANSWERS
  • militesmiserrimos
  • feminampulcherrimam
  • equocelerrimo
six words that have their own superlative
Six words that have their own superlative
  • There are six words that form the superlative in their own way.
  • The six words are:
  • difficilis
  • facilis
  • dissimilis
  • similis
  • humilis
  • gracilis
these six words use the following
These six words use the following:
  • Find the base
  • Add –lim-
  • Use 1st-2nddecl endings
  • A most difficult day – accusative singular
  • difficillimum diem
  • difficil - the base
  • difficillim – the base + lim—
  • difficillimum – the base + lim + ending which agrees with diem
three ways to form superlative
Three Ways to form Superlative

Most Adjectives

  • Find the base
  • Add issim—
  • Add 1st – 2nddecl endings

Adjectives ending in –er

  • Use the word ending in –er
  • Add -rim—
  • Add 1st-2nddecl endings

Six Special Words

  • Find base
  • Add –lim-
  • Add 1st – 2nddecl endings
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