Social welfare policymaking
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SOCIAL WELFARE POLICYMAKING PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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SOCIAL WELFARE POLICYMAKING. Social Welfare Policies. Provide benefits to individuals Based on either Entitlement (regardless of need; Social Security/Medicare) or Means-Tested programs (based on need; Food Stamps or Medicaid). Means-Tested Programs.

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SOCIAL WELFARE POLICYMAKING

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SOCIAL WELFARE POLICYMAKING


Social Welfare Policies

  • Provide benefits to individuals

  • Based on either Entitlement (regardless of need; Social Security/Medicare) or Means-Tested programs (based on need; Food Stamps or Medicaid)


Means-Tested Programs

  • Controversial due to philosophical differences

  • Deserving Poor vs. Undeserving Poor

  • Social Darwinism vs. Cyclical / Structural Poverty


Income Distribution: describes how the national income is divided


  • Relative Deprivation: perception by an individual that they are not doing well economically in comparison to others

  • Income: amount of money collected between two points in time

  • Wealth: Value of all assets owned (stocks, bonds, bank accounts, cars, houses, etc.)

    • 1/3 of wealth held by 1%,

    • 1/3 by next 9%,

    • remaining 1/3 by the other 90%


Poverty Line

  • Income threshold below which people are considered poor

  • 1 person = 11,170

  • 4 persons = 23,050

  • 43.6 million, about 14.3%, officially poor in 2009

  • ‘Feminization of Poverty’: increasing concentration of poverty among women


Gov’t.’s Affect on Income

  • Government can affect income via two ways:

    • Taxation & Expenditures


TAXATION

  • Progressive Tax: bigger % from rich

  • Proportional Tax: same % from all

  • Regressive Tax: bigger % from poor

  • Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): refundable credit for working people who earn low incomes


EXPENDITURES

  • Transfer Payments: benefits directly to individuals

    • cash, food stamps, low % loans


Evolution of “Welfare State”

  • 1789-1935: parents care for children who take care of parents as they age

  • 1935: Social Security Act created as part of FDR’s New Deal

    • $ for retired, disabled

    • Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)

  • 1964: LBJ’s “War on Poverty”

    • Medicare/Medicaid


  • 1980’s: De-funding of social welfare programs under Reagan

  • 1996: Welfare Reform Act, WJ Clinton

    • Must find work within 2 years

    • Total of 5 years welfare

    • AFDC changes to TANF (“Temporary Assistance for Needy Families”)


Political Conflict

  • Social Darwinism/dependency (“Deserving Poor”) vs. Cyclical/Structural Poverty (“Undeserving Poor”)


  • Americans tend to see welfare recipients as overwhelmingly African-American, lazy, and undeserving

  • Feelings on race affect feelings on welfare

  • Media portrays recipients as minority when majority are White


Source: Census Bureau - Table H-3, 2010


What percent in taxes does each pay after paying for basic necessities like food and shelter, rather than total income?


If you subtract this $2,000 a month or $24,000 per year from the various quintiles' incomes, the following pre-tax disposable incomes result:


And here are the actual average taxes paid by quintile:


And so, here are the tax percentages that each quintile actually pays as a percent of their true disposable incomes, assuming everyone needs at least $2,000 a month just to get by:


SOCIAL SECURITY

  • Trust Fund: $ in to pay current recipients

  • 12.4% tax up to $102,000

  • 6.2% paid by employee

  • 6.2% paid by employer


INSOLVENCY

  • Life expectancy:

    1935 = < 65; 2009 = >78

  • Baby Boom =

    fewer workers-to-recipients ratio

  • Fund has been ‘raided’ over the years to pay for other programs


SOLUTION(S)?

  • Increase Payroll Taxes

  • Decrease benefits for recipients

  • Increase age at which benefits are recived

  • Means-Testing recipients


Efficacy of Groups re: Social Welfare Policymaking

  • Elderly: well-organized with a high amount of resources = effective

  • Poor: vote less, less money, fewer organizations = less effective


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