Robert the bruce
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Robert the Bruce. 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329. The house of Bruce. Spotlight How did David 1 st inherit the throne? What did David 1 st introduce into Scotland? What relationship did David have with the English King Henry 1 st ? Which Kings death caused the “Great Cause”?

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Robert the Bruce

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Robert the bruce

Robert the Bruce

11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329


The house of bruce

The house of Bruce

Spotlight

How did David 1st inherit the throne?

What did David 1st introduce into Scotland?

What relationship did David have with the English King Henry 1st?

Which Kings death caused the “Great Cause”?

What was the “Great Cause”?

What was the “Award of Norham”?

What was the final straw that made John rebel against Edward?

Why were all the nobles given a pardon and not William Wallace?

David 1st

Matilda of Huntingdon

Ada de Warenne

Henry of Huntingdon

David of Huntingdon

Malcom IV

1141-1165

William I

1142-1214

Maud of Chester

Margaret of Huntingdon 1194-1233

Isabella of Huntingdon 1199-1251

Alan of Galloway

Robert de Brus

Dervorgilla of

Galloway

Robert de Brus

Marjorie

Of Carrick

John Balliol

John Balliol

King – 1292-1314

Robert I

The Bruce

King 1306 - 1329


What happened after wallace

What happened after Wallace?

  • Wallace resigned his authority as guardian after the Battle of Falkirk

  • He was replaced by representatives of the Balliol and Bruce factions

  • Bruce and Comyn could not see past their personal differences. As a nephew and supporter of King John, and as someone with a serious claim to the Scottish throne, Comyn was Bruce's enemy.

Who represented the King?

What relationship did he have to John?


Relationships

Relationships

Dervorgilla of

Galloway

John Balliol

John Balliol

King – 1292-1314

4 younger sisters plus

John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch

3 older brothers

Eleanor - m

John “The Red” Comyn, Lord of Badenoch


The murder of comyn

The murder of Comyn

  • 10th February 1306

    • Bruce and Comyn met to discuss their differences

    • They disagreed about something

  • When Bruce left the church Comyn lay dying

    • Bruce realised that he had committed sacrilege

    • English chroniclers portray the murder as cold blooded but Scottish chroniclers portray him as a hero who saved Scotland from an Evil traitor

  • Whatever the reason the consequences were the same. It meant instant excommunication & perhaps worse.

Or because Comyn refused to support Bruce’s planned uprising against the English

Because they both wanted the crown

Bruce had no choice, after confessing to Wishart and receiving a pardon, he headed for Scone


Inauguration at scone

Inauguration at Scone

  • 25 March 1306

    • Bruce was crowned King of Scots by Bishop William de Lamberton at Scone, near Perth

    • The royal robes and vestments which Robert Wishart had hidden from the English were brought out and placed on King Robert.

    • The bishops of Moray and Glasgow were there as well as the earls of Atholl, Menteith, Lennox, and Mar. The great banner of the kings of Scotland was placed behind his throne

Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan who claimed the right to crown Bruce arrived the next day, too late for the coronation, so a second coronation was held and once more the crown was placed on the brow of Robert


Did bruce have good reason to take the throne in 1306

Did Bruce have good reason to take the throne in 1306?

  • Robert in one move had managed to cause what every Guardian of Scotland had tried to avoid since 1286 … Civil War.

  • In order to prevent himself from being arrested Robert rushed to get himself crowned at Scone.

  • This was a political move: as king he could not be arrested for the murder of Comyn.

  • He was inaugurated by Bishop Wishart and the Countess of Buchan.


Edward s reaction

Edward’s reaction

“Let her be closely confined in an abode of stone and iron made in the shape of a cross, and let her be hung up out of doors in the open air at Berwick, that both in life and after her death, she may be a spectacle and eternal reproach to travelers."

  • Edward was by no means happy at hearing of yet another rebellion.

  • By June 1306, Bruce’s small army had been destroyed by Sir Aymer de Valence’s English army at Methven, near Perth.

  • Edward confiscated all of Bruce’s lands, executed three of his brothers and captured his wife and sister at Kildrummy Castle, placing them in a wooden cage.


Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare

  • Bruce spent the winter travelling the islands of Scotland gaining support.

  • He returned to Ayrshire and raised a new army.

  • For the next seven years he engaged in a war with the supporters of Comyn in the north east and the English in the central belt.

  • Bruce’s victory in this civil war was a major achievement, considering how many Scottish nobles were against him.

  • However, he was aided in 1307 by the death of Edward I.


Reasons for robert s successes

Reasons for Robert’s successes

  • Death of Edward I – Edward had been the driving force behind English opposition.

  • Edward II had little or no interest in continuing the conflict.

  • Robert proved to be an excellent commander .

  • Robert rewarded his followers by giving them large grants of land taken from his enemies.

  • Robert took the brave decision to destroy Scottish castles rather than risk them falling into the hands of the English.


Reasons for robert s successes1

Reasons for Robert’s successes

  • Roberts’s enemies in Scotland may have been powerful, but they were located in isolated areas. Thus, they couldn’t support each other.

  • Bruce quickly controlled Moray, allowing him internal lines of communication.

  • The Scottish Church supported him and Bishop Wishart claimed fighting the English was the equivalent of going on a crusade.

  • Bruce gained important foreign aid through Aberdeen.

  • As long as Bruce controlled the north he had a reservoir of manpower and a place to escape.


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