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PAEE 2009 Project Approaches in Engineering Education ”The Added Value of Teamwork” University of Minho, Portugal 21-22 July , 2009 Project Management and Teamwork Arvid Andersen Copenhagen University College of Engineering Denmark [email protected] ; [email protected]

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Project Management

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PAEE 2009Project Approaches in Engineering Education”The AddedValue of Teamwork”University of Minho, Portugal21-22 July, 2009Project Management and Teamwork Arvid AndersenCopenhagen University College of [email protected]; [email protected]


Project Management

Arvid Andersen

All projects are carried out by people – success is achieved through people working in teams

People management is the most important element of project management – it is people who get things done, not objectives, not plans, not machines and not schedules (althouhg all these are important)


Creativity and Innovation

  • A benign atmosphere showing openness and trust will motivate, stimulate and promote development of creative ideas and innovation.

  • Ideally, teams promise to promote synergy where results outweigh the sum of individual contribution.


Arvid Andersen

Working in Teams

  • A Team is:

    - a task-tuned group of people

    - a group of people working together to

    chieve ocjectives which are shared

    - a social unit deliberately designed


Arvid Andersen


  • Is more than just teambuilding.

  • Is the ability to work together towards a common vision.

  • Is the ability to direct individual acomplishment.

  • Is the fuel that allows ordinary people to attain extraordinary results.

  • Is less I and more We.


Arvid Andersen

Working on Projects

  • A goodproject :

    - Emphasizesapplication of theory

    - Involvesengineering design work

    - Is innovative and necessitates a team


    - Is important to the provider

    - Is not routine

    - Has not to manyconstraints over confidenti


Arvid Andersen


Team Development

  • Stage 1 – Forming

    - The team gets to know each other

    - The team begins to understand each others views,

    ideas, expectations and objectives

    - The team members test each other out

    - Individuals begin to create a personal identity

    - The team is guarded about issues raised and

    opinions given


Arvid Andersen

Team Development

  • Stage 2 – Storming

    - Opinions more openly and forcefully


    - Group leadershipmaybechallenged

    - Someinfighting as allegiancesareques-


    - Nature of the task and programmeChallen


    - Somemembersfeeldemotivated and leave

Arvid Andersen


Team Development

  • Stage 3 – Norming

    - More organisedwith procedures and sys

    stems to achieveparticulargoals

    - The skillslevel, competences and behavi

    oural norms for eachmemberbecomeapp


    - Interpersonalbarriersfallinto the backgr


    - Increasedco-operation and exchange of views,

    ideas and opinions

    ”The sooner the groupattempts to fulfillcertaintaskgoals, the sooner it will break of the infighting stage”


Arvid Andersen

Team Development

  • Stage 4 – Performing

    • Team matured and workingwelltogether

    • Increasedcohesionwithmemberssupportingoneanother and sharing information and ideas

    • Toleratingeachothers differences

    • Able to marshalitsfullresources to persue the commongoal

      Howquickly the team progressesdependon the leader´sskill in reconciling differences, developingcohesion and assisting the group in identifyingwitheachother

Arvid Andersen


Teamwork is

  • Group performance with regard to:

    - The product produced

    - The process excuted

    - The people involved

Arvid Andersen


Barriers to Communication

  • Language

  • Cultural behaviour

  • Speaking skills

  • Listening skills

Arvid Andersen


Peer and Self-AssessmentTechniques

  • Weekly meetings with supervisors

  • Regular meetings with company representatives

  • Project and people review meetings

  • Collaborative agreements

  • Improvement reports

  • Personal improvement plans

Arvid Andersen


Integrated Engineering

  • Integrated engineering involves the interrelated work of several disciplines

  • The disciplines involved in a given project are chosen according to the need of the project provider and the academic world

  • Working in an integrated engineering context emphasizes development of personal competences

Arvid Andersen


Steps in environmentally sound design

  • Evaluatematerials and processes.

  • Make sure that the product is easy to takeapart in order to reuse.

  • Make the design simple and eliminatepainting and dangeroussolubles .

  • If packing is necessary, make sure that it is reuseableorbiologicallydegradeable.

  • Design a long lifeinto the product.

  • Design a long lifeinto the product.

  • Make sure that the end usercanrepair and reusecomponents.

  • Sustainableengineeringdevelopment and environmentalconcern.

Arvid Andersen



  • Why do fewer students takeengineeringeducation? (SN36-1990)

  • Engineering students sufferfacturaloverloads (SN36-1990)

  • Lookingahead to 2020, whatwillbe the most importantskills, knowledge and behaviors for students to acquire to provide Ohio withcompetitiveadvantages in the global economy? (ASEE 2. Jan. 2009)


Learning in Teams

  • It´s not enough to tell and show students, they must beinvolved to learn

  • Don´tspoon-feed students

  • Don´toverfillsyllabusses

  • Allow time to wonder

  • Provide time to developknowledge, insight and skills

  • Help students to developcriticalthinkingskills,whichwillimprovetheirconfidence and theirability to dare


First team-meeting agenda

  • Attitude test, group work

  • What is your level of ambition?

  • What is required of you by your home university?

  • What is your opinion of working long hours?

  • Problem/project formulation exercise

    NB: A minute of the meeting should be placed in the team log book.


Education should be changed

  • Engineers commonly describe themselves in terms of a single discipline, a convention increasingly misleading. Therefore reasons to adjust or change education should be considered.


Reasons to change education 1

  • Very few engineers work totally within the confines of a single discipline or industry.

  • Fundamental changes in working attitudes, and greater emphasis on multidisciplinary and multinational environments, highlights the need for a radically different approach to education and training.

  • Traditional specialism no longer apply in the world dictated by a bigger overlap of engineering and science.

  • The accelerating evolution of technology accompanied by a growing amount of knowledge, much of which continuously become redundant, require a new approach to education and training and changes of the curriculum.


Reasons to change education 2

  • We have to provide a “deep” learning environment in which acquiring insight will take precedence over conventional specialist courses.

  • Continuing education has become a more determinant factor in career development and is part of a through-career education and training.

  • Easier access to knowledge through the ongoing advances in information technology should be coupled with improvements in teaching and assessment techniques.

  • Accreditation boards should be aware of the changing conditions and adjust accordingly. They should appreciate the new professional equipped with a broad range of entrepreneurial skills.


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