CHAPTER 24 Bankruptcy, Reorganization, and Liquidation. Financial distress process Federal bankruptcy law Reorganization Liquidation. What are the major causes of business failure?. Economic factors industry weakness poor location/product Financial factors too much debt
What are the major causes
of business failure?
Most failures occur because a number of factors combine to make the business unsustainable.
Do business failures occur evenly over time?
What size firm, large or small, is more prone to business failure?
What key issues must managers
face in the financial distress process?
What informal remedies are available to firms in financial distress?
Informal Bankruptcy Terminology
Describe the following terms related to U.S. bankruptcy law:
What are the major differences
between an informal reorganization
and reorganization in bankruptcy?
What is a prepackaged bankruptcy?
List the priority of claims in a
Chapter 7 liquidation.
State and local taxes0.2
Subordinated debentures* 4.0
*Subordinated to notes payable.
Proceeds from liquidation:
From current assets$14.0
From fixed assets* 2.5
*All fixed assets pledged as collateral to mortgage holders.
Second mortgage 0.5 0.0 0.5
Notes:(1)First mortgage receives entire proceeds from sale of
fixed assets, leaving $0 for the second mortgage.
(2)$16.5 - $3.5 = $13.0 remains for distribution to general
General Creditor Distribution (millions of $)
Remaining Initial Final Percent
Creditor GC ClaimDistrib.aAmountbReceived
Sub. deb. 4.0 2.600 0.85021.2
aPro rata amount = $13/$20 = 0.65.
bIncludes priority distribution and $1.75 transfer from subordinated debentures.
Other Motivations for Bankruptcy
Some Criticisms of Bankruptcy Laws
X = Bankrupt
Z = -2 + 1.5(Current ratio) - 5.0(Debt ratio).
Using MDA To Predict Bankruptcy
Z = -2 + 1.5(4.0) - 5.0(0.40) = +2.0,
and firm is unlikely to go bankrupt.
Z = -2 + 1.5(1.5) - 5.0(0.75) = -3.5,
and firm is likely to go bankrupt.