Morphology the mental lexicon day 25 oct 25 2013
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Morphology & the mental lexicon DAY 25 – Oct 25, 2013. Brain & Language LING 4110-4890-5110-7960 NSCI 4110-4891-6110 Harry Howard Tulane University. Course organization. The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/LING4110/ .

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Morphology & the mental lexicon DAY 25 – Oct 25, 2013

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Morphology the mental lexicon day 25 oct 25 2013

Morphology & the mental lexiconDAY 25 – Oct 25, 2013

Brain & Language

LING 4110-4890-5110-7960

NSCI 4110-4891-6110

Harry Howard

Tulane University


Course organization

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

Course organization

  • The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/LING4110/.

  • If you want to learn more about EEG and neurolinguistics, you are welcome to participate in my lab. This is also a good way to get started on an honor's thesis.

  • The grades are posted to Blackboard.


Review

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

Review


Summary of lateralization of phonology

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

Summary of lateralization of phonology


A theory of how the brain works

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

A theory of how the brain works

  • The five theories of the lateralization of phonology that we have reviewed gradually converge towards lateralization as a kind of calculation or computation.


A neuron as a computation if not a calculation

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

A neuron as a computation, if not a calculation

dendrite a

dendrite b

dendrite c

dendrite d

axon


Morphology the mental lexicon

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

Morphology & the mental lexicon

Ingram: III. Lexical semantics, §9.


Linguistic model fig 2 1 p 37

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

Linguistic model, Fig. 2.1 p. 37

Discourse model

Semantics

Sentence level

Syntax

Sentence prosody

Word level

Morphology

Word prosody

Segmental phonology

perception

Segmental phonology

production

Acoustic phonetics Feature extraction

Articulatory phonetics Speech motor control

INPUT


Dual route model

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

Dual-route model

meaning

verb + past tense

morphological analysis

/di.paɹ.t + ɪd/

compositional route

lexical route

phonological input

/di.paɹ.tɪd/

/wɪnt/


What is a word

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

What is a word?

  • Phonologically

    • a spike in the level of uncertainty as to what the next sound will be

      • d

      • o

      • g

      • ?

  • Semantically

    • that is the topic of this chapter


M orphological decomposition

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

Morphological decomposition

  • Recall that words can be analyzed in terms of inflection & derivation

    • inflection: cats > cat+s, sleeping > sleep+ing

    • derivation: government > govern+ment

      • argument

      • detriment

      • department


Form frequency relations in english past tense table 1 9

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

Form-frequency relations in English past tenseTable 1.9

These relations generalize to other morphemes and other languages, eg. tack~tacks, knife~knives, ox~oxen.

Can one learning model account for all three,

or is a dual-route model necessary,

or perhaps even a triple-route model?


What does to prime the pump mean

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

What does ‘to prime the pump’ mean?

  • What is priming in psychology?

  • ‘the facilitatory effect that presentation of an item can have on the response to a subsequent item’

  • usually measured in terms of reaction time


An example of priming table 9 2

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

An example of primingTable 9.2


What causes the priming effect table 9 3

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

What causes the priming effect?Table 9.3

Answer: The semantic relationship.


What causes the priming effect table 9 4

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

What causes the priming effect?Table 9.4


A little too early

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

A little too early

  • The previous experiment suggests that prefixes and suffixes are processed differently.

    • I want to introduce a model of word semantics first, and then we will return to this issue.

  • Ingram has a good summary of a PET and a MEG experiment on morphological processing.

    • MEG is more informative, but to understand the results, we need to wait until we have discussed Broca’s area.


Next time

Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University

NEXT TIME

Q7

Start word semantics


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