Inverse grid2 6 central lymphoid organ
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Inverse Grid2-6 中枢免疫器官 ( Central lymphoid organ ). 骨髓和法氏囊( Bone Marrow and bursa of Fabricius ). A bilobbed primary lymphoid organ that is required for the generation of immunocompetent CD3CD4 and CD3CD8 cells necessary for adaptive immune response. 胸腺( Thymus ).

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Inverse grid2 6 central lymphoid organ

Inverse Grid2-6 中枢免疫器官 (Central lymphoid organ)

骨髓和法氏囊(Bone Marrow and bursa of Fabricius)

A bilobbed primary lymphoid organ that is required for the generation of immunocompetent CD3CD4 and CD3CD8 cells necessary for adaptive immune response.

胸腺(Thymus)


2-6 中枢免疫器官(Central lymphoid organ)

骨髓和法氏囊(Bone Marrow and bursa of Fabricius)

胸腺(Thymus)

A bilobbed primary lymphoid organ that is required for the generation of immunocompetent CD3CD4 and CD3CD8 cells necessary for adaptive immune response.


法氏囊(Bursa of Fabricius)

Bruce Glick and Charlie Chang


  • 胸 腺(Thymus)

  • 皮质:上皮性网状支架,发育早期胸腺细胞为主

  • 髓质:上皮性网状为主,少量胸腺细胞

  • 血-胸屏障:皮质毛细血管及其周围具有屏障作用

  • 功能:分泌多种激素,促进胸腺细胞分化

  • 年龄变化:新生儿胸腺相对较大,至青春期达30-40克,此后胸腺开始萎缩。


胸腺小叶中靠近边缘的皮质区密集地布满了胸腺细胞,靠近中心的髓质区则细胞稀少。胸腺为胸腺细胞的发育、成熟提供微环境。胸腺小叶中靠近边缘的皮质区密集地布满了胸腺细胞,靠近中心的髓质区则细胞稀少。胸腺为胸腺细胞的发育、成熟提供微环境。


Thymic Tissue Architecture胸腺小叶中靠近边缘的皮质区密集地布满了胸腺细胞,靠近中心的髓质区则细胞稀少。胸腺为胸腺细胞的发育、成熟提供微环境。

The thymus is made up of various cell type derived from different origin. Histologically, the thymus has three distinct components: subcapsular cortex, cortex and medulla. Development of T cells or thymucytes are found embedded in an epithelial network known as thymic stroma. The thymic anlage provides an inductive environment that allows precursor T cells to rapidly expand and differentiate.


2-7 胸腺小叶中靠近边缘的皮质区密集地布满了胸腺细胞,靠近中心的髓质区则细胞稀少。胸腺为胸腺细胞的发育、成熟提供微环境。外周淋巴器官(Peripheral lymphoid organ)

  • 淋巴结(lymphnodes)

  • 脾脏(spleen)

  • 粘膜相关淋巴系统 (mucosa-associated lymphoid system)

  • 扁桃体(tonsil)


  • High endothelial venule胸腺小叶中靠近边缘的皮质区密集地布满了胸腺细胞,靠近中心的髓质区则细胞稀少。胸腺为胸腺细胞的发育、成熟提供微环境。,HEV(高内皮毛细血管后微静脉)

HEV are specialized venules found in lymphoid tissues. Lymphocytes migrate from blood into lymphoid tissues by attaching to and migrating across the high endothelial cells of the vessels.


  • 生发中心(胸腺小叶中靠近边缘的皮质区密集地布满了胸腺细胞,靠近中心的髓质区则细胞稀少。胸腺为胸腺细胞的发育、成熟提供微环境。germinal center)

Germinal centers in secondary lymphoid tissues are sites of intense B cell proliferation, selection, and death during Ab responses. Germinal centers form around follicular dendritic cell network when activated B cells migrate into lymphoid follicles.

初级淋巴小结(primary follicle)

次级淋巴小结(secondary follicle)= 生发中心(germinal center)


Lymph nodes are encapsulated strictures that are strategically placed throughout the body to receive and filter antigens and cells from peripheral interstitial fluid and lymph. All lymph nodes eventually drain into the thoracic duct and back to the peripheral blood.


淋 巴 结 的 基 本 结 构 strategically placed throughout the body to receive and filter antigens and cells from peripheral interstitial fluid and lymph. All lymph nodes eventually drain into the thoracic duct and back to the peripheral blood.

小梁

髓质淋巴窦

皮质淋巴窦

生发中心

毛细血管

HEV

被膜

静脉

输出淋巴管

髓质

动脉

髓索

输入淋巴管

淋巴结 淋巴结被膜外侧有数条输入淋巴管,门处有动、静脉神经和输出淋巴管。实质分为皮质和髓质。靠近被膜的浅层皮质区有生发中心(左)。右图显示生发中心的显微结构。


左锁骨 strategically placed throughout the body to receive and filter antigens and cells from peripheral interstitial fluid and lymph. All lymph nodes eventually drain into the thoracic duct and back to the peripheral blood.

下静脉

胸 腺

右淋巴

导管

心 脏

胸导管

次级淋巴结

初级淋巴结

皮氏小淋巴结

肠系膜淋巴结

肠系膜淋巴丛

乳糜管

肠导管

腹股沟淋巴结


中央动脉 strategically placed throughout the body to receive and filter antigens and cells from peripheral interstitial fluid and lymph. All lymph nodes eventually drain into the thoracic duct and back to the peripheral blood.

动脉周围 淋巴鞘

脾 脏 的 结 构

淋巴小结

边缘区

静脉窦

被膜

边缘区

生发中心

动脉周围 淋巴鞘

脾索


  • 脾 脏 ( strategically placed throughout the body to receive and filter antigens and cells from peripheral interstitial fluid and lymph. All lymph nodes eventually drain into the thoracic duct and back to the peripheral blood. Spleen)

  • 白髓(white pulp)

  • (1)动脉周围淋巴鞘(periarterial lymphatic sheath,PALS),围绕在动脉周围的弥散淋巴组织,主要由T细胞组成,相当于副皮质区。

  • (2)淋巴小结,主要由B细胞组成,可发展成生发中心,常出现于PALS的一侧。

  • 红髓(red pulp)

  • 占脾实质的2/3,分布于小梁周围及白髓之间。

  • (1)脾索,

  • (2)脾血窦,

  • 功能

  • 滤血、免疫、造血、储血


肠 粘 膜 淋 巴 组 织 的 结 构

小肠绒毛细胞

M细胞

引流淋巴管

生发中心

浆细胞

粘液层

B细胞

T细胞

输出淋巴管

肌肉层


上皮细胞 的 结 构

sIgA

M细胞

巨噬细胞

IgA

辅助

Th

浆细胞

B

肠 道 淋 巴 系 统 免 疫 应 答


2-7 的 结 构Recirculation of lymphocytes (淋巴细胞再循环)

Both T and B cells continuously circulate and recirculate, blood to lymph to blood. Approximately 1-2% recirculate every hour. NK cells are only found in blood, spleen and liver.


淋巴结 的 结 构

(12小时)

脾 脏

(5小时)

输出淋 巴管

52%

未活化淋巴细胞

45%

42%

血液循环

(30分钟)

10%

不参加再循环的细胞 ( ?)

10%

活化淋巴细胞

粘摸下组织

其它组织

肝 、大脑

骨髓、上皮

腹腔


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