GDR and FRG: The Big questions
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GDR and FRG: The Big questions. What was the state of Germany after 1945?. Hunger Damage to buildings, businesses Refugees Treatment by Soviet soldiers. What did the Allies want to do with Germany?. Potsdam agreement August 1945: Truman, Stalin, Attlee.

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GDR and FRG: The Big questions

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Gdr and frg the big questions

GDR and FRG: The Big questions


What was the state of germany after 1945

What was the state of Germany after 1945?

  • Hunger

  • Damage to buildings, businesses

  • Refugees

  • Treatment by Soviet soldiers


What did the allies want to do with germany

What did the Allies want to do with Germany?

  • Potsdam agreement August 1945: Truman, Stalin, Attlee.

  • It was agreed that Germany be administered under joint Allied control: spilt into four zones

  • Germany should be demilitarised, denazified and democraticised


Why was germany divided in 1949

Why was Germany divided in 1949?

  • Distrust between the Allies

  • Britain and America: Bizonia

  • Then Britain, America and France: Tizonia.

  • Fear of communism: but questionable, Stalin unable to expand or start another conflict

  • Churchill ‘Iron Curtain speech’

  • Truman Doctrine: US will help those who want freedom from communist influence

  • Marshall Aid


Why was germany divided in 19491

Why was Germany divided in 1949?

  • Need currency reform to introduce US aid. New deutschmark.

  • Soviets refused and introduced their own currency: East German mark

  • Berlin Blockade: hope to starve out West Berlin

  • Berlin Airlift

  • Two states formed 1949


How communist was the gdr

How communist was the GDR?

  • GDR: German Democratic Republic: East Germany

  • Constitution 1949: had a parliament and a upper house to represent the regions or Lander, President, Prime Minister

  • But: SED general secretary more important. Walter Ulbricht

  • But: Lander abolished 1952 replaced by Bezirke

  • But: Upper house abolished 1958

  • All parties increasingly under control of ruling SED

  • Secret Police: Stasi

  • Integration with the Soviet Bloc: Comecon: economic benefits: trade with Russia, Warsaw Pact: military alliance of East Europe: counterbalance of NATO


How did life in the gdr change

How did life in the GDR change?

  • Collectivisation 1952

  • Uprising June 1953

  • More collectivisation 1960-61

  • Emphasis on heavy industry, focus on production targets

  • Unrealistic five year plans

  • VEBs Peoples Own factory: owned and managed by the state


How did life in the gdr change1

How did life in the GDR change?

  • Many workers fled to FRG: approx 3 million

  • Women got more support

  • Mass organisations

  • Free German Trade Union League: old workers members, controlled by SED

  • Free German Youth

  • German-Soviet Friendship Society

  • Democratic German Women’s League

  • Communism and religion incompatible: RE removed from schools, Jugendweihe (coming of age ceremony)

  • Youth: scholarships, schools link with industry


Interpretations of gdr

Interpretations of GDR

  • Totalitarian: one party state? Stasi, Soviet tanks suppress 1953 uprising, Wall 1961

  • Success: industry/production does improve

  • Society: women, youth organisations


How democratic was the frg

How democratic was the FRG?

  • FRG: Federal Republic of Germany: West Germany

  • Constitution 1949: President, Chancellor, two tiered parliament

  • President didn’t have emergency powers

  • Proportional Representation, 5 % hurdle

  • All parties and organisations have to be democratic

  • Adenauer Chancellor: from CDU: Christian Democratic Union


What was life like in the frg

What was life like in the FRG?

  • Consumer society: availability of western products, new technologies

  • Influx of workers from GDR ‘guest workers’

  • Western culture: music, fashion

  • Women: more traditional role

  • Army 1955


What was the economic miracle

What was the economic miracle?

  • Ludwig Erhard ‘prosperity for all’

  • Helped by Marshall Aid, Korean War, joining of European Steel and Coal community, European Economic Community (EEC) 1957, NATO 1955


How did the frg view the gdr

How did the FRG view the GDR?

  • Regarded the GDR as the zone

  • Ignored them during 1953 uprising

  • Didn’t do anything when the wall was put up

  • Hallstein Doctrine: FRG would not have diplomatic relations with any powers that did recognise it as a state


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