Parasitism in freshwater fish
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Parasitism in Freshwater Fish. Jonathan King. Numerous types of parasites. Protozoans Trematodes Nematodes Cestodes Crustaceans Leeches. Protozoa. Ciliates

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Parasitism in Freshwater Fish

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Parasitism in freshwater fish

Parasitism in Freshwater Fish

Jonathan King


Numerous types of parasites

Numerous types of parasites

  • Protozoans

  • Trematodes

  • Nematodes

  • Cestodes

  • Crustaceans

  • Leeches


Protozoa

Protozoa

  • Ciliates

    • Large protozoa up to 2mm in length that have cilia (hair like organelles) covering their body at some point, if not all, of their life cycle

  • Flagellates

    • Protozoa equipped with one or more whip-like flagella used for propulsion


Ciliates

Ciliates

  • Largest group of protozoa

  • Direct life cycle

  • Common in pond-reared fish

  • Easy to eliminate in aquarium due to controlled conditions

  • Easily transmitted…nets, hoses or hands


Ciliates cont

Ciliates cont.

  • Symptoms include

    • Skin or gill irritation

      • Rubbing and abnormal breathing

  • Species

    • Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    • Tetrahymena

    • Apiosoma

    • Epistylis


Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

  • Disease

    • Ich or white spot disease

    • Responsible for majority of fish fatalities

  • Symptoms

    • Small lesions on body or fins

    • If gills only…no lesions but a thick mucus

  • Size

    • 1000um diameter


Ichthyophthirius multifiliis cont

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis cont.

  • Identification

    • Horseshoe shaped macronucleus

  • Possible mis-ID

    • Immature forms may resemble Tetrahymena


Ichthyophthirius multifiliis1

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis


Ichthyophthirius multifiliis cont1

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis cont.

  • Life cycle

    • Theronts infect fish t=0

      • Dig under scales or gills

    • Mature trophozoites leave fish t=~7days

      • Settle and secrete cyst

    • Cysts rapidly divides to produce hundreds of tomites

    • At maturity they leave cysts looking for host

    • Whole cycle =10 days to 4 weeks (temp)


Ich treatment

Ich Treatment

  • Life cycle is temp dependent

    • So raising the temp increases life cycle to days instead of weeks

  • Formalin

  • Chelated copper

  • Copper sulfate

  • Treat for >3days after last spot gone


Any last thoughts on ich

Any last thoughts on Ich

  • Well you can vaccum the floor of tank to get the cysts?...not extremely effective but buys time

  • If diagnosed early

    • Treatments may be effective

  • If infestation in advanced stages

    • Fish may be immune

    • Toilet


Tetrahymena

Tetrahymena

  • Donde esta tetrahymena?

    • Living in organic debris

    • Body surface of your favorite fish

  • Treatment

    • Same as Ich

    • If internal …like the eyes

      • toilet


Tetrahymena1

Tetrahymena


Apiosoma

Apiosoma

  • Location

    • Gills, skin, or fins

  • What does he look like?

    • Vase like

    • Oral cilia

  • Treatment

    • Very treatable…formaline, copper sulfate..etc


Apiosoma1

Apiosoma


Epistylis

Epistylis

  • Stalked ciliate very similar to apiosoma

  • Danger

    • Greater concern than most due to proteolytic enzymes secreted by the organism

    • The enzyme breaks down proteins in the skin of the fish making the fish susceptible to bacterial infection


Epistylis1

Epistylis

  • Treatment

    • Salt

      • .02% salt solution for extended period

      • 3% salt dip

    • More than one treatment required


Flagellates

Flagellates

  • External and internal

  • High magnification

    • 200-400x

  • species

    • Spironucleus

    • Ichthyobodo

    • Myxozoa

    • Microsporidia


Spironucleus

Spironucleus

  • Location

    • Intestinal tract

  • Symptoms

    • Extreme weight loss

    • Distended abdomen

    • Yellow mucoid build up in intestines


Spironucleus1

Spironucleus

  • Diagnosis

    • Intestinal prep @ 200-400x

    • High counts…too many to miss

  • Treatment

    • Metronidazole bath

      • 5mg/L

      • Every other day…one week


Ichthyobodo

Ichthyobodo

  • External Flagellate

  • Large amounts of mucus

    • Blue slime disease in catfish

  • Location

    • Gills, skin and fins

  • Diagnosis

    • Microscopic examination….

  • Treatment…formalin, copper sulfate..etc


Myxozoa

Myxozoa

  • Widespread in native or pond reared fish

  • How bad is it?

    • Most infections not bad

    • But some may be serious…young fish


Myxozoa1

Myxozoa

  • Extremely abundant and diverse

  • Speciation

    • Based on spore shape and size

  • Examination technique

    • Preps of infected area

    • Histologic sections of tissue


Myxozoa cont

Myxozoa cont

  • Symptoms

    • Vary depending on the organ affected

      • Excess mucus productions

      • White or yellowish noduleson target organs

  • Diseases

    • Whirling disease- salmon

    • Wasting disease


Myxozoa2

Myxozoa

  • Treatment

    • Toilet

    • No remedies known

    • Spores can survive >1year

      • Disinfection necessary after removal of infected fish


Microsporidia

Microsporidia

  • Intracellular parasites

    • Require host tissue for reproduction

  • Mode of transmission

    • Ingesting spores from infected fish or food

  • Symptoms

    • Small “tumors” in various tissues

    • Enlargement of hosts cells cause tumor like masses


Microsporidia1

Microsporidia

  • Clinical signs

    • Dependent on tissue infected

    • {from no lesions to dead}

    • Serious cases…cysts enlarge to a point that organs no longer function correctly


Microsporidia2

Microsporidia

  • Infections caused

    • Pleistophora

      • Infects skeletal muscle

      • Cysts

  • Treatments

    • None available

    • Spores tough

      • Can survive long periods

      • Most environmental conditions it can handle


Microsporidia3

Microsporidia

  • So what am I supposed to do?

    • Flushing of infected fish

    • Disinfect the environment


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Poor water quality, crowding, stress and diet issues are main issues with fish susceptibility to parasitism

  • So if you have concerns on water quality issues…prevent it.


References

References

  • "Ichthyophthirius multifiliis." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 15 Nov 2007, 04:17 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Nov 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ichthyophthirius_multifiliis&oldid=171595742>.

  • edis.ifas.ufl.edu

  • www.microscope-microscope.org

  • www.aquaticparadise.com

  • www.uoguelph.ca .

  • www.koisite.be

  • www.ars.usda.gov

  • http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FA/FA04100.pdf


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