parasitism in freshwater fish
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Parasitism in Freshwater Fish. Jonathan King. Numerous types of parasites. Protozoans Trematodes Nematodes Cestodes Crustaceans Leeches. Protozoa. Ciliates

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numerous types of parasites
Numerous types of parasites
  • Protozoans
  • Trematodes
  • Nematodes
  • Cestodes
  • Crustaceans
  • Leeches
protozoa
Protozoa
  • Ciliates
    • Large protozoa up to 2mm in length that have cilia (hair like organelles) covering their body at some point, if not all, of their life cycle
  • Flagellates
    • Protozoa equipped with one or more whip-like flagella used for propulsion
ciliates
Ciliates
  • Largest group of protozoa
  • Direct life cycle
  • Common in pond-reared fish
  • Easy to eliminate in aquarium due to controlled conditions
  • Easily transmitted…nets, hoses or hands
ciliates cont
Ciliates cont.
  • Symptoms include
    • Skin or gill irritation
      • Rubbing and abnormal breathing
  • Species
    • Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
    • Tetrahymena
    • Apiosoma
    • Epistylis
ichthyophthirius multifiliis
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
  • Disease
    • Ich or white spot disease
    • Responsible for majority of fish fatalities
  • Symptoms
    • Small lesions on body or fins
    • If gills only…no lesions but a thick mucus
  • Size
    • 1000um diameter
ichthyophthirius multifiliis cont
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis cont.
  • Identification
    • Horseshoe shaped macronucleus
  • Possible mis-ID
    • Immature forms may resemble Tetrahymena
ichthyophthirius multifiliis cont1
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis cont.
  • Life cycle
    • Theronts infect fish t=0
      • Dig under scales or gills
    • Mature trophozoites leave fish t=~7days
      • Settle and secrete cyst
    • Cysts rapidly divides to produce hundreds of tomites
    • At maturity they leave cysts looking for host
    • Whole cycle =10 days to 4 weeks (temp)
ich treatment
Ich Treatment
  • Life cycle is temp dependent
    • So raising the temp increases life cycle to days instead of weeks
  • Formalin
  • Chelated copper
  • Copper sulfate
  • Treat for >3days after last spot gone
any last thoughts on ich
Any last thoughts on Ich
  • Well you can vaccum the floor of tank to get the cysts?...not extremely effective but buys time
  • If diagnosed early
    • Treatments may be effective
  • If infestation in advanced stages
    • Fish may be immune
    • Toilet
tetrahymena
Tetrahymena
  • Donde esta tetrahymena?
    • Living in organic debris
    • Body surface of your favorite fish
  • Treatment
    • Same as Ich
    • If internal …like the eyes
      • toilet
apiosoma
Apiosoma
  • Location
    • Gills, skin, or fins
  • What does he look like?
    • Vase like
    • Oral cilia
  • Treatment
    • Very treatable…formaline, copper sulfate..etc
epistylis
Epistylis
  • Stalked ciliate very similar to apiosoma
  • Danger
    • Greater concern than most due to proteolytic enzymes secreted by the organism
    • The enzyme breaks down proteins in the skin of the fish making the fish susceptible to bacterial infection
epistylis1
Epistylis
  • Treatment
    • Salt
      • .02% salt solution for extended period
      • 3% salt dip
    • More than one treatment required
flagellates
Flagellates
  • External and internal
  • High magnification
    • 200-400x
  • species
    • Spironucleus
    • Ichthyobodo
    • Myxozoa
    • Microsporidia
spironucleus
Spironucleus
  • Location
    • Intestinal tract
  • Symptoms
    • Extreme weight loss
    • Distended abdomen
    • Yellow mucoid build up in intestines
spironucleus1
Spironucleus
  • Diagnosis
    • Intestinal prep @ 200-400x
    • High counts…too many to miss
  • Treatment
    • Metronidazole bath
      • 5mg/L
      • Every other day…one week
ichthyobodo
Ichthyobodo
  • External Flagellate
  • Large amounts of mucus
    • Blue slime disease in catfish
  • Location
    • Gills, skin and fins
  • Diagnosis
    • Microscopic examination….
  • Treatment…formalin, copper sulfate..etc
myxozoa
Myxozoa
  • Widespread in native or pond reared fish
  • How bad is it?
    • Most infections not bad
    • But some may be serious…young fish
myxozoa1
Myxozoa
  • Extremely abundant and diverse
  • Speciation
    • Based on spore shape and size
  • Examination technique
    • Preps of infected area
    • Histologic sections of tissue
myxozoa cont
Myxozoa cont
  • Symptoms
    • Vary depending on the organ affected
      • Excess mucus productions
      • White or yellowish noduleson target organs
  • Diseases
    • Whirling disease- salmon
    • Wasting disease
myxozoa2
Myxozoa
  • Treatment
    • Toilet
    • No remedies known
    • Spores can survive >1year
      • Disinfection necessary after removal of infected fish
microsporidia
Microsporidia
  • Intracellular parasites
    • Require host tissue for reproduction
  • Mode of transmission
    • Ingesting spores from infected fish or food
  • Symptoms
    • Small “tumors” in various tissues
    • Enlargement of hosts cells cause tumor like masses
microsporidia1
Microsporidia
  • Clinical signs
    • Dependent on tissue infected
    • {from no lesions to dead}
    • Serious cases…cysts enlarge to a point that organs no longer function correctly
microsporidia2
Microsporidia
  • Infections caused
    • Pleistophora
      • Infects skeletal muscle
      • Cysts
  • Treatments
    • None available
    • Spores tough
      • Can survive long periods
      • Most environmental conditions it can handle
microsporidia3
Microsporidia
  • So what am I supposed to do?
    • Flushing of infected fish
    • Disinfect the environment
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Poor water quality, crowding, stress and diet issues are main issues with fish susceptibility to parasitism
  • So if you have concerns on water quality issues…prevent it.
references
References
  • "Ichthyophthirius multifiliis." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 15 Nov 2007, 04:17 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 15 Nov 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ichthyophthirius_multifiliis&oldid=171595742>.
  • edis.ifas.ufl.edu
  • www.microscope-microscope.org
  • www.aquaticparadise.com
  • www.uoguelph.ca .
  • www.koisite.be
  • www.ars.usda.gov
  • http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FA/FA04100.pdf
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