Determining Eligibility for Specific Learning Disabilities

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The Guidance Document Process. West Virginia Department of Education 2009. Included a committee of stakeholdersOne school-level RTI coordinator/interventionistTwo principalsOne district special education directorOne district special education coordinatorFive school psychologistsState RTI CoordinatorAssistant Director, OAAWas based on current research, professional judgment, and experience gained from implementing the RTI process in RTI Demonstration Schools.
Determining Eligibility for Specific Learning Disabilities

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1. Policy, Procedures and Processes Determining Eligibility for Specific Learning Disabilities

2. The Guidance Document Process West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Included a committee of stakeholders One school-level RTI coordinator/interventionist Two principals One district special education director One district special education coordinator Five school psychologists State RTI Coordinator Assistant Director, OAA Was based on current research, professional judgment, and experience gained from implementing the RTI process in RTI Demonstration Schools

3. The Committee Angela Madia, Harrison County Beverly Winter, Raleigh County Brenda Clark, Tyler County Bonnie Vickers, Kanawha County Conrae Lucas-Adkins, Lincoln County Ed Morgret, Hampshire County Hope Reagan, Berkeley County Jim Brown, WVDE Kerynn Sovic, Jackson County Linda Palenchar, WVDE Marianne Annie, Kanawha County Susanne Vila, Wetzel County Vic Fisher, Harrison County

4. Professional Development Plan 2009-2010 West Virginia Department of Education 2009

5. Guidelines for Identifying Students with Specific Learning Disabilities West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Guidelines to inform practice and decision-making Background information Strategies and procedures to provide consistency across schools and districts Resources

6. Policy & Guidance West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Policy 2419 includes the regulations for implementing IDEA 2004. It includes the elements of the three-tier instruction model, a summary of the problem solving model used within the RTI process and the standards or criteria for determining that a student has a specific learning disability. Identifying Students with Specific Learning Disabilities is a guidance document that will assist schools and parents in making confident decisions. It includes procedures for all components of the RTI process, guidelines for decision-making and a variety of resources.Policy 2419 includes the regulations for implementing IDEA 2004. It includes the elements of the three-tier instruction model, a summary of the problem solving model used within the RTI process and the standards or criteria for determining that a student has a specific learning disability. Identifying Students with Specific Learning Disabilities is a guidance document that will assist schools and parents in making confident decisions. It includes procedures for all components of the RTI process, guidelines for decision-making and a variety of resources.

7. Revised Timelines for Implementation West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Revisions have been made to the implementation timelines. Elementary schools must have their reading frameworks in place by July 2009 and mathematics by 2010. The dates for middle and high school are July 2011 and 2012 respectively. A waiver has been submitted to the WV Board of Education this month. It restricts the implementation of timelines on p. 33. The waiver allows elementary schools to continue to use the discrepancy formula for mathematics only. For students with SLD manifested in reading, the RTI process must be used. Additionally, the waiver allows middle and high schools to continue with the discrepancy model until the dates indicated on the slide.Revisions have been made to the implementation timelines. Elementary schools must have their reading frameworks in place by July 2009 and mathematics by 2010. The dates for middle and high school are July 2011 and 2012 respectively. A waiver has been submitted to the WV Board of Education this month. It restricts the implementation of timelines on p. 33. The waiver allows elementary schools to continue to use the discrepancy formula for mathematics only. For students with SLD manifested in reading, the RTI process must be used. Additionally, the waiver allows middle and high schools to continue with the discrepancy model until the dates indicated on the slide.

8. Big Ideas West Virginia Department of Education 2009 RTI conveys a new way of thinking about determining specific learning disabilities Decision-making for determining a specific learning disability is a data-driven process RTI data collection and formal evaluations inform the SLD decision-making process These are the big ideas for today?s training.These are the big ideas for today?s training.

9. You Will Know? West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The nature, roles and responsibilities of the various teaming structures needed within the RTI framework Procedures for verifying each of the SLD criteria Level of Learning Rate of Learning Exclusionary Factors Validating Underachievement How to document the written requirements for SLD determinations At the conclusion of this workshop, you will know?At the conclusion of this workshop, you will know?

10. You Will Understand? West Virginia Department of Education 2009 EC members need a comprehensive understanding of the student, his/her educational environment, educational history, and response to intervention The EC decision-making process relies on high quality: Collaboration Data analysis Documentation You will understand?You will understand?

11. Essential Question West Virginia Department of Education 2009 How can educators, school psychologists, and parents feel confident in making an appropriate SLD eligibility decision?

12. RTI Knowledge Rating Scale West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Allow 5 minutes for participants to complete the ?Before? side of the RTI Knowledge Rating Scale. Tell them that they will complete the other side of this form near the end of this presentation. At that time, they should score differently based on the content of the presentation and their experiences with the various learning activities they will engage in today.Allow 5 minutes for participants to complete the ?Before? side of the RTI Knowledge Rating Scale. Tell them that they will complete the other side of this form near the end of this presentation. At that time, they should score differently based on the content of the presentation and their experiences with the various learning activities they will engage in today.

13. Advance Organizer West Virginia Department of Education 2009 This slide shows how the presentation is organized around these five themes. You will see this slide periodically as we move through the session. We begin with Connecting RTI and SLD.This slide shows how the presentation is organized around these five themes. You will see this slide periodically as we move through the session. We begin with Connecting RTI and SLD.

14. Connecting RTI and SLD The Framework and the Identification Process West Virginia Department of Education 2009

15. Response to Intervention is? West Virginia Department of Education 2009 a process of teaching students to read, write and do math . . . and perhaps concluding that a few have specific learning disabilities. This has been the primary guiding principle of West Virginia?s RTI process. This has been the primary guiding principle of West Virginia?s RTI process.

16. RTI Continuum of Support for All RTI is first and foremost a support system for all students. The three-tier model provides the instructional framework for delivering increasing levels of intervention to at-risk students. WV elementary schools have been establishing their models over the last several years.RTI is first and foremost a support system for all students. The three-tier model provides the instructional framework for delivering increasing levels of intervention to at-risk students. WV elementary schools have been establishing their models over the last several years.

17. West Virginia Department of Education 2009

18. Two Purposes of RTI West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Provides an academic support system for all students through tiered instruction, progress monitoring, and teaming Is used as a method for identifying students with specific learning disabilities This is an important concept. RTI is firs the system of support we just discussed. Then, for the students with the most severe reading/mathematics weaknesses, RTI documentation is used to determine eligibility for SLD. It?s important to keep these two purposed clear, especially after a student is identified for special education services.This is an important concept. RTI is firs the system of support we just discussed. Then, for the students with the most severe reading/mathematics weaknesses, RTI documentation is used to determine eligibility for SLD. It?s important to keep these two purposed clear, especially after a student is identified for special education services.

19. Research Base for Using RTI as a Component of SLD Identification West Virginia Department of Education 2009 No universal agreement on what the discrepancy should be. A discrepancy model in reading precludes early identification. Discrepancy models are not developmentally sensitive toward different stages of reading development. Discrepancy model promote ?wait-to-fail? mindsets. No universal agreement on what the discrepancy should be. A discrepancy model in reading precludes early identification. Discrepancy models are not developmentally sensitive toward different stages of reading development. Discrepancy model promote ?wait-to-fail? mindsets.

20. RTI and SLD West Virginia?s SLD eligibility criteria no longer include use of the IQ-achievement discrepancy The data collected through the tiered instruction model is a component of a multidisciplinary evaluation for SLD SLD is characterized by: Achievement that is substantially below grade-level, and Documented low response to research-based intervention While cognitive and achievement testing may be components of a multidisciplinary evaluation, ECs are no longer permitted to compare those test results to determine a SLD. Instead, a combination of RTI data in conjunction with other assessment data is used to identify a student?s persistent and severe underachievement. We are no longer looking a the discrepancy between intellectual development and achievement. Now, a student?s response to research-based intervention is the key element in determining SLD.While cognitive and achievement testing may be components of a multidisciplinary evaluation, ECs are no longer permitted to compare those test results to determine a SLD. Instead, a combination of RTI data in conjunction with other assessment data is used to identify a student?s persistent and severe underachievement. We are no longer looking a the discrepancy between intellectual development and achievement. Now, a student?s response to research-based intervention is the key element in determining SLD.

21. LD Identification Considerations West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Low academic growth does not necessarily constitute a specific learning disability. If the low-performing student does not grow where other students are thriving, targeted intervention needs to be considered. Some points to consider as we move away from the discrepancy model toward the RTI process for identifying SLD?Some points to consider as we move away from the discrepancy model toward the RTI process for identifying SLD?

22. The Paradigm Shift Work with a partner Read ?Connecting the RTI Framework to SLD Determination? pp. 2-7 Reflect on the changes in identifying students with SLD Complete the Paradigm Shift Worksheet West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Each table will record a minimum of two consensus statements. Process responses. Now we?ll take our first look at the Guidelines for Identifying Students with SLD document. You will work in pairs to read pp. 2-7 pertaining to the research on RTI as a process for identifying SLD. Please find in your training packet a worksheet entitled ?Paradigm Shift?. You will complete this sheet after you read the pages in the document and discuss with your partner. (10 minutes to complete).Each table will record a minimum of two consensus statements. Process responses. Now we?ll take our first look at the Guidelines for Identifying Students with SLD document. You will work in pairs to read pp. 2-7 pertaining to the research on RTI as a process for identifying SLD. Please find in your training packet a worksheet entitled ?Paradigm Shift?. You will complete this sheet after you read the pages in the document and discuss with your partner. (10 minutes to complete).

23. Conceptual Framework for SLD Identification West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The identification of SLD shifts from the notion of ?unexpected underachievement? to severe and persistent low achievement. There are differences between this conceptual framework and the traditional IQ-achievement discrepancy model. Your work with the Paradigm Shift activity should have pointed out those differences.The identification of SLD shifts from the notion of ?unexpected underachievement? to severe and persistent low achievement. There are differences between this conceptual framework and the traditional IQ-achievement discrepancy model. Your work with the Paradigm Shift activity should have pointed out those differences.

24. Advance Organizer West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Here?s our Advance Organizer again. We?re moving to the topic of problem solving and teaming.Here?s our Advance Organizer again. We?re moving to the topic of problem solving and teaming.

25. Problem Solving and Teaming Laying the Foundation for Decision-Making West Virginia Department of Education 2009

26. Problem Solving Process West Virginia Department of Education 2009 These steps of the problem solving process are outlined in Policy 2419, Chapter 4 and are very familiar to us. This particular model has been used for many years and aligns well with the RTI process. Refer to it often as you work with teachers and principals. Remind them that it reflects the thinking and problems solving work of the IIT and SAT.These steps of the problem solving process are outlined in Policy 2419, Chapter 4 and are very familiar to us. This particular model has been used for many years and aligns well with the RTI process. Refer to it often as you work with teachers and principals. Remind them that it reflects the thinking and problems solving work of the IIT and SAT.

27. Teaming Structures West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Each collaborative structure provides a framework and process for discussing students? educational concerns. Each of these teaming structures are describe in state policies. IIT and SAT are included in Policy 2510. Each of the other teams is required as per Policy 2419. Decisions within the RTI process are fundamentally dependent on problem solving and teaming and three specific collaborative structures for decision-making are in place in West Virginia. Included are: Instruction and Intervention Teams (IIT), Student Assistant Teams (SAT), and Individualized Education Program (IEP) Teams. Each of these formats provides a framework and process for discussing students? educational concerns and ultimately informs the RTI process. Each of these teaming structures are describe in state policies. IIT and SAT are included in Policy 2510. Each of the other teams is required as per Policy 2419. Decisions within the RTI process are fundamentally dependent on problem solving and teaming and three specific collaborative structures for decision-making are in place in West Virginia. Included are: Instruction and Intervention Teams (IIT), Student Assistant Teams (SAT), and Individualized Education Program (IEP) Teams. Each of these formats provides a framework and process for discussing students? educational concerns and ultimately informs the RTI process.

28. IIT and SAT Roles & Responsibilities West Virginia Department of Education 2009 IIT Teachers working together to: Identify students for tiered intervention Group students Select and develop targeted interventions Monitor student progress and effectiveness of interventions SAT Review and validate documentation collected during the instruction and intervention process Make recommendations for further, broader problem solving activities Initiate multidisciplinary evaluations for special education The purpose of the IIT is outlined here. Many schools refer to their teams as grade-level or monitoring teams. The name is not important ? rather, it is the purpose and work of those teams that supports the RTI framework. In some schools, the IIT and the SAT are the same group. Again, it?s not the name that matters but the fact that student data is being analyzed, instructional decisions are being made, and staff are working collaboratively to solve instructional problems. The purpose of the IIT is outlined here. Many schools refer to their teams as grade-level or monitoring teams. The name is not important ? rather, it is the purpose and work of those teams that supports the RTI framework. In some schools, the IIT and the SAT are the same group. Again, it?s not the name that matters but the fact that student data is being analyzed, instructional decisions are being made, and staff are working collaboratively to solve instructional problems.

29. SAT Forms West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Local districts are encouraged to develop SAT forms that meet the needs of their students and schools and communicate problem solving activities to parents Sample SAT forms are available on the OSP RTI web site at http://wvde.state.wv.us/osp/RtIForms.html SAT forms are developed at the local level as each school district has its unique needs and preferences. We encourage you to continue to develop your own SAT forms and be sure they include all necessary components. Sample forms will be available at the URL on this slide soon.SAT forms are developed at the local level as each school district has its unique needs and preferences. We encourage you to continue to develop your own SAT forms and be sure they include all necessary components. Sample forms will be available at the URL on this slide soon.

30. MDET and EC Roles & Responsibilities West Virginia Department of Education 2009 MDET Review and discuss existing data collected during the tiered intervention process Determine the need for additional evaluations that inform instruction and eligibility decision-making Select appropriate assessments to confirm or reject a SLD hypothesis EC Review and discuss student?s response to intervention Review and discuss results of additional evaluations Determine if multiple data sources indicate a specific learning disability Document the presence of a SLD Once the SAT makes the recommendation for a multidisciplinary evaluation the MDET is utilized. The evaluation team includes the same members as the IEP team but not necessarily the same individuals. A key responsibility of the MDET is to review existing data and make recommendations for additional evaluations. Finally, the Eligibility Committee is responsible for determining whether a student is eligible for or continues to need special education services. The most significant responsibility for the EC within the context of RTI is the task of verifying and analyzing the student?s response to intervention.Once the SAT makes the recommendation for a multidisciplinary evaluation the MDET is utilized. The evaluation team includes the same members as the IEP team but not necessarily the same individuals. A key responsibility of the MDET is to review existing data and make recommendations for additional evaluations. Finally, the Eligibility Committee is responsible for determining whether a student is eligible for or continues to need special education services. The most significant responsibility for the EC within the context of RTI is the task of verifying and analyzing the student?s response to intervention.

31. Roles & Responsibilities At-a-Glance West Virginia Department of Education 2009

32. Student Support Teams Sort West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Read the roles/responsibilities of the various teaming structures Categorize each according to: IIT SAT MDET EC IEP Team Let?s take some time to think about and discuss the various teaming structures and their duties. Remember, the responsibilities of the IIT and SAT may blend or merge and it?s important for each district to communicate these procedures to schools. Work at your table. In the Teams Sort envelop you will find strips that describe various team tasks. First, find the five category headings as shown on this slide. Then, work together to decide where each task fits. (10 minutes). Provide ANSWER KEYS as groups finish their work.Let?s take some time to think about and discuss the various teaming structures and their duties. Remember, the responsibilities of the IIT and SAT may blend or merge and it?s important for each district to communicate these procedures to schools. Work at your table. In the Teams Sort envelop you will find strips that describe various team tasks. First, find the five category headings as shown on this slide. Then, work together to decide where each task fits. (10 minutes). Provide ANSWER KEYS as groups finish their work.

33. Parents as Partners in the RTI Process West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The district must document that the student?s parents were notified about the following: The state?s policies regarding the amount and nature of student performance data that would be collected and the general education services that would be provided; Strategies for increasing student?s rate of learning; and The parents? right to request an evaluation at any time throughout the RTI process Counties are responsible for the copying and distribution of the parent brochure. In determining SLD, you must be able to document that the parent was indeed provided this information.Counties are responsible for the copying and distribution of the parent brochure. In determining SLD, you must be able to document that the parent was indeed provided this information.

34. Parent Requests for Evaluation West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The law is clear - a parent may request an evaluation at any time during the RTI process If a parent requests an evaluation, the district may choose to: Request permission to evaluate, OR Decline the request to evaluate and issue prior written notice (PWN) in accordance with the regulations RTI does not change this aspect of the special education regulations. Note the two options the district has once a parent requests an evaluation: 1) honor the parent?s request, or 2) deny the request and provide PWN. Don?t get bogged down with the notion that if the evaluation is done prior to the completion of tiered intervention, the student?s can?t be made eligible. Be sure to explain that the other important component to identifying a student with a SLD is the collection of RTI data. A premature request for evaluation may not be helpful as RTI data must be reviewed in the decision-making process. Good communication with parents is the key and will help schools avoid potential conflict over premature evaluations. NOTE: Schools use their SAT process to address a parental request for evaluation.RTI does not change this aspect of the special education regulations. Note the two options the district has once a parent requests an evaluation: 1) honor the parent?s request, or 2) deny the request and provide PWN. Don?t get bogged down with the notion that if the evaluation is done prior to the completion of tiered intervention, the student?s can?t be made eligible. Be sure to explain that the other important component to identifying a student with a SLD is the collection of RTI data. A premature request for evaluation may not be helpful as RTI data must be reviewed in the decision-making process. Good communication with parents is the key and will help schools avoid potential conflict over premature evaluations. NOTE: Schools use their SAT process to address a parental request for evaluation.

35. Determining Levels of Support through Problem Solving (p.14) Identifying Students for Tier II Support Identifying Students for Tier III Support West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Use September universal screening results to identify students at risk for failure Group by similar academic needs Provide 2 rounds of Tier II Continue problem solving activities throughout Tier II Use results of 2 rounds of Tier II intervention to determine appropriate Tier III intervention May be provided simultaneously with a request to evaluate

36. Advance Organizer West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Now we will address the components of the multidisciplinary evaluation.Now we will address the components of the multidisciplinary evaluation.

37. Multidisciplinary Evaluation Components Selecting Assessments to Inform Instruction and Determine SLD West Virginia Department of Education 2009

38. West Virginia Department of Education 2009 A complementary relationship between the RTI process and psychoeducational testing exists in evaluating for a potential learning disability. It is important to note that psychoeducational testing complements the RTI process in identifying students with SLD. It is important to note that psychoeducational testing complements the RTI process in identifying students with SLD.

39. RTI as a Component of the Evaluation for SLD West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Data collected throughout the RTI process is used as a component of the multidisciplinary evaluation Calculating a severe discrepancy is no longer part of the SLD determination process Policy 2419 phases out the use of IQ-achievement discrepancy to determine SLD RTI plus other evaluations constitute an evaluation for SLD. It is no longer useful nor legal to use the severe discrepancy calculation to determine SLD. As we noted earlier, the use of the discrepancy formula will be phased out according to the timelines mentioned earlier.RTI plus other evaluations constitute an evaluation for SLD. It is no longer useful nor legal to use the severe discrepancy calculation to determine SLD. As we noted earlier, the use of the discrepancy formula will be phased out according to the timelines mentioned earlier.

40. RTI Documentation Constitutes Existing Data? Most information is gathered through the course of the student?s instruction and intervention? A chronology of the student?s educational history Benchmark and progress monitoring data Results of diagnostic assessments to inform the intervention process (e.g., Quick Phonics Screener, Phonological Awareness Screening Inventory, Basic Reading Inventory) Specific documentation of the nature and intensity of general classroom instruction Comprehensive documentation of the nature, frequency, and duration of intervention Take a look at the types of existing data that school are using to establish whether a student has responded sufficiently to intervention?Take a look at the types of existing data that school are using to establish whether a student has responded sufficiently to intervention?

41. Considerations for Selecting Formal Assessments West Virginia Department of Education 2009 In conducting an evaluation, MDETs select assessment procedures that will link eligibility determinations to instruction. Assessments that focus on specific features of a student?s academic difficulty are more useful than measures that address global academic areas. For the student who exhibits weaknesses in areas such as memory, attention, or processing speed, the evaluation battery addresses those areas. When the MDET chooses to use formal assessments, they must consider these points.When the MDET chooses to use formal assessments, they must consider these points.

42. Cross Battery Assessment (XBA) Approach for Determining SLD Cross battery assessment(XBA) is a process of selecting subtests that target specific cognitive domains. XBA results and interpretations inform and guide instructional approaches and strategies for the student. X BA includes multiple measures for arriving at a conclusion that confirms or rejects the hypothesis made by the SAT and MDET. Lists included in the SLD guidance document are not exclusive. Professional judgment and expertise should guide the selection of tests. One technique to cognitive assessment that may be useful is the cross-battery approach. It is described briefly in the Guidelines for Identifying SLD document on pp.25-26 and the references beginning on p. 55 includes further readings. Also, the Appendix includes three example of cross battery assessments designed to investigate reading and mathematics difficulties.One technique to cognitive assessment that may be useful is the cross-battery approach. It is described briefly in the Guidelines for Identifying SLD document on pp.25-26 and the references beginning on p. 55 includes further readings. Also, the Appendix includes three example of cross battery assessments designed to investigate reading and mathematics difficulties.

43. Observation Requirement West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The student suspected of having a SLD must be observed in the learning environment, including the general classroom setting, to document the student?s academic performance and behavior in the areas of difficulty. IDEA 2004 includes a new requirement for observation. New language (underlined component on slide) addresses academic performance and behavior in the areas of difficulty. So, if a student is referred for evaluation due to reading difficulties, observation of the student in the context of reading instruction is required. Logistics are important and evaluators will need to strategically plan observations that capture the student?s performance in those areas of difficulty.IDEA 2004 includes a new requirement for observation. New language (underlined component on slide) addresses academic performance and behavior in the areas of difficulty. So, if a student is referred for evaluation due to reading difficulties, observation of the student in the context of reading instruction is required. Logistics are important and evaluators will need to strategically plan observations that capture the student?s performance in those areas of difficulty.

44. Observation Requirement West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Use information from observation done before the student was referred for an evaluation OR At least one member of the evaluation team conducts an observation after the student has been referred for evaluation and parent consent is obtained IDEA 2004 strengthened its language around the observation and the child suspected of having a SLD. It now uses the word ?ensure? in discussing the provision. It also broadens the scope of where the child is to be observed. Previously the environment for observation was just in the general classroom setting. Also added are the phrases ?and behavior? and ?in the areas of difficulty? ? which address the scope of what is being observed.IDEA 2004 strengthened its language around the observation and the child suspected of having a SLD. It now uses the word ?ensure? in discussing the provision. It also broadens the scope of where the child is to be observed. Previously the environment for observation was just in the general classroom setting. Also added are the phrases ?and behavior? and ?in the areas of difficulty? ? which address the scope of what is being observed.

45. Observation and Parent Consent West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The new observation requirement generates questions about parent consent. This chart illustrates the issue and when consent is and is not required.The new observation requirement generates questions about parent consent. This chart illustrates the issue and when consent is and is not required.

46. Observation Requirements Before the Referral After the Referral West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Running records Principal walk-throughs Informal or anecdotal information that addresses specific referral issues, instructional practices and fidelity of instruction Observations made by reading specialists, co-teachers, counselors Formal classroom observations conducted by a member of the evaluation team Information regarding setting demands, student behaviors, teaching practices, and any other related curriculum and instruction issues that may affect student performance Here are some examples of observations before and after referral. The lists are not exhaustive and your schools will most likely find others, especially on the before list.Here are some examples of observations before and after referral. The lists are not exhaustive and your schools will most likely find others, especially on the before list.

47. Activity: Designing the Evaluation West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Read the Case Study entitled ?Danielle? Work with your group to create an assessment battery matched to Danielle?s learning characteristics and performance data Keep the goal of instructional planning in mind Record your decisions on the large chart paper Be prepared to share your decisions Activity: Make sure a school psychologist is at each station Have participants count off by fives to establish groups ? groups should be cross-district Explain that the case study represents a real student in a RTI Demonstration school. All of the data is authentic. Their task is described on the slide. Display next slide during activity.Activity: Make sure a school psychologist is at each station Have participants count off by fives to establish groups ? groups should be cross-district Explain that the case study represents a real student in a RTI Demonstration school. All of the data is authentic. Their task is described on the slide. Display next slide during activity.

48. Which did you consider in planning the evaluation? West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Rate of learning Level of academic performance in one of the 8 areas for SLD Memory Processing speed Attention/concentration Visual motor integration Behavior Executive functioning Speech/language Primary language Phonological processing Academic fluency Others? Have teams report out briefly and note any evaluations they consider unique.Have teams report out briefly and note any evaluations they consider unique.

49. Advance Organizer West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The next portion of the training deals with the SLD eligibility standards as articulated in Policy 2419.The next portion of the training deals with the SLD eligibility standards as articulated in Policy 2419.

50. SLD Eligibility Standards Operationalizing the SLD Criteria West Virginia Department of Education 2009

51. Policy 2419 SLD Criteria West Virginia Department of Education 2009 These are the three areas the EC will focus on to make its decision. Level of learning relates to grade level CSO proficiency. Rate of learning involves progress monitoring results. How fast is the student progressing toward grade levels standards? What does the trend line look like? Are you optimistic that the student will make enough progress to participate adequately at grade level? The exclusion factors have not changed since the last reauthorization of IDEA. Do the comprehensive evaluation data allow you to rule out other disability categories (e.g., MI, Autism).These are the three areas the EC will focus on to make its decision. Level of learning relates to grade level CSO proficiency. Rate of learning involves progress monitoring results. How fast is the student progressing toward grade levels standards? What does the trend line look like? Are you optimistic that the student will make enough progress to participate adequately at grade level? The exclusion factors have not changed since the last reauthorization of IDEA. Do the comprehensive evaluation data allow you to rule out other disability categories (e.g., MI, Autism).

52. SLD Guidance Document Scavenger Hunt West Virginia Department of Education 2009 For this activity you will need your Guidelines document. Direct participants to pp. 29-42. Ask them to skim the section and record answers to the Scavenger Hunt questions on the worksheet. 4 participants to group. Divide the 16 questions evenly among your team. Read correct answers so participants can correct their own worksheets. Provide correct answers using Scavenger Hunt ANSWER KEY before moving on in the presentation.For this activity you will need your Guidelines document. Direct participants to pp. 29-42. Ask them to skim the section and record answers to the Scavenger Hunt questions on the worksheet. 4 participants to group. Divide the 16 questions evenly among your team. Read correct answers so participants can correct their own worksheets. Provide correct answers using Scavenger Hunt ANSWER KEY before moving on in the presentation.

53. West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Now that we?ve reviewed the regulations and policy, let?s consider how we look at the evidence and make informed eligibility determinations.Now that we?ve reviewed the regulations and policy, let?s consider how we look at the evidence and make informed eligibility determinations.

54. Good decisions are based on West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Include grade level collaboration meetings, SAT, and EC for decision-making processes.Include grade level collaboration meetings, SAT, and EC for decision-making processes.

55. Four Questions for Eligibility Does the child achieve adequately for the child?s age or meet State-approved grade level standards? Has the child shown a lack of response to scientifically based instruction? Have other factors or conditions been ruled out? Are the student?s academic concerns the result of a lack of instruction? Each of the boxes from the graphic representation just shown, can be considered as questions. We?ll take each of the boxes ( criteria) separately to discuss the four questions for eligibility in the next part of the presentation.Each of the boxes from the graphic representation just shown, can be considered as questions. We?ll take each of the boxes ( criteria) separately to discuss the four questions for eligibility in the next part of the presentation.

56. Standard 1: Level of Learning West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Addresses mastery of grade-level content Evidenced by significant and persistent low academic achievement even after intervention Guidelines for Determining Severe Underachievement assist the EC in making this decision

57. Defining Severe Underachievement West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Research indicates that a score of the 30th percentile on a nationally normed benchmark test or individual achievement test is equivalent to a proficient score on most statewide tests (Kovaleski, 2009). To demonstrate inadequate achievement relative to this standard, West Virginia is using at or below the 8th percentile to meet the SLD qualification. IQ score is not a comparable comparison against academic performance.

58. WV Guidelines for Determining Severe Underachievement West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) results that include a minimum of 6 data points that reflect at least 16 weeks of intervention that are at or below the 8th percentile. Norm-referenced achievement test score at or below the 8th percentile. Inadequate performance as indicated by assessment of grade-level CSOs 30%tile considered proficient (Kovaleski) Current prevalence of SLD30%tile considered proficient (Kovaleski) Current prevalence of SLD

59. Purpose of the Severe Underachievement Guidelines West Virginia Department of Education 2009 No single data source is more important than another Multiple sources establish a convergence of data and help the EC reach a logical conclusion about the student?s underachievement The Severe Underachievement Guidelines (i.e., 8th percentile) are not fixed rules used to deny eligibility p.29 in Guidelines document Don?t be rigid! Policy 2419 still requires that no single measure or evaluation may be used as the sole criterion for determining whether a student is a student with an exceptionality. (p. 18, Section 4: Evaluation Procedures, B, 2)p.29 in Guidelines document Don?t be rigid! Policy 2419 still requires that no single measure or evaluation may be used as the sole criterion for determining whether a student is a student with an exceptionality. (p. 18, Section 4: Evaluation Procedures, B, 2)

60. Standard 2: Rate of Learning West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Student?s rate of progress as compared to expected rate in a given content area Determined by comparing the slope of the student?s data points with the slope of the expected learning rate (aim line) Standard 2 is met when the student?s learning rate or growth is substantially below grade level peers The next standard, Rate of Learning, is describe in detail in the guidelines beginning on p. 32. The next phase of training will address this standard in a more in depth manner. For now, we?ll just look at the big ideas.The next standard, Rate of Learning, is describe in detail in the guidelines beginning on p. 32. The next phase of training will address this standard in a more in depth manner. For now, we?ll just look at the big ideas.

61. Progress Monitoring Resources West Virginia Department of Education 2009 I highly recommend that you familiarize yourself with this wonderful web resource. It provides background information on progress monitoring, the research base for its use in the RTI process and a ?Tools Chart? that includes information to help educators and practitioners in making informed decisions about scientifically based tools that best meet their individual needs. I highly recommend that you familiarize yourself with this wonderful web resource. It provides background information on progress monitoring, the research base for its use in the RTI process and a ?Tools Chart? that includes information to help educators and practitioners in making informed decisions about scientifically based tools that best meet their individual needs.

62. Understanding Slope of Progress West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Progress monitoring considers student performance over time Change is reflected in slope Slope calculation addresses both the expected and actual rates of performance In calculating slope, it?s important to note that it can be done in Excel.In calculating slope, it?s important to note that it can be done in Excel.

63. Using Acuity for RTI West Virginia Department of Education 2009 As you know, progress monitoring is an essential component of RTI. Most elementary schools have purchased mCLASS DIBELS to benchmark and progress monitor critical early reading skills. As RTI is scaled up to include upper grade levels as well as mathematics, other tools are needed. One option currently available to West Virginia school is the Acuity platform. It is for use in grades 3-11 and its features are outlined on the next slide.As you know, progress monitoring is an essential component of RTI. Most elementary schools have purchased mCLASS DIBELS to benchmark and progress monitor critical early reading skills. As RTI is scaled up to include upper grade levels as well as mathematics, other tools are needed. One option currently available to West Virginia school is the Acuity platform. It is for use in grades 3-11 and its features are outlined on the next slide.

64. Using Acuity for RTI West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Acuity is an online/paper-pencil platform for grades 3-11 for Mathematics, Reading/Language Arts, Science and Social Studies Acuity includes: WVDE authored benchmark tests aligned with WESTEST2 Custom test capability using 25,000 items aligned with WV 21st Century CSOs Instructional resources to target instruction Immediate reporting capabilities

65. Using Acuity for RTI West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Progress monitoring assessments comprised of multiple measures of critical skills will be developed by the WVDE Acuity progress monitoring measures will address critical academic components such as vocabulary, reading comprehension and mathematics Instructional Resources can be used to support instruction Teachers will be invited to work with OSP and Assessment office coordinators in developing the probes. We will begin with mathematics since other options are currently available for reading at this time.Teachers will be invited to work with OSP and Assessment office coordinators in developing the probes. We will begin with mathematics since other options are currently available for reading at this time.

66. Standard 3: Exclusion Factors West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Standard 3 is met when the EC can rule out: A visual, hearing, or motor disability Mental impairment Behavioral/emotional disorder Cultural factors Environmental or economic disadvantage Limited English proficiency Lack of appropriate instruction Keep in mind that while the RTI framework is for all students, it is used as an identification method for SLD only at this time. Be cognizant of other exceptionalities and the identification criteria outlined in Policy 2419. For example, if a child is suspected to have a cognitive disability, it would be prudent to conduct an evaluation and determine if the child meets the criteria for MI. The RTI process is not meant to delay or deny eligibility for any exceptionality.Keep in mind that while the RTI framework is for all students, it is used as an identification method for SLD only at this time. Be cognizant of other exceptionalities and the identification criteria outlined in Policy 2419. For example, if a child is suspected to have a cognitive disability, it would be prudent to conduct an evaluation and determine if the child meets the criteria for MI. The RTI process is not meant to delay or deny eligibility for any exceptionality.

67. West Virginia Department of Education 2009 This slides summarizes the various factors or conditions that exclude a student from being identified as a student with a SLD. Some ideas for screening procedures and knowing when/how to dig deeper are included. See separate handout for use in training.This slides summarizes the various factors or conditions that exclude a student from being identified as a student with a SLD. Some ideas for screening procedures and knowing when/how to dig deeper are included. See separate handout for use in training.

68. Validating Underachievement (Ruling Out Lack of Instruction) West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Only after a student has been provided an opportunity to learn with the additional targeted supports provided within a tiered instructional model should referral and eligibility for special education eligibility under the SLD category Only after a student has been provided an opportunity to learn with the additional targeted supports provided within a tiered instructional model should referral and eligibility for special education eligibility under the SLD category Only after a student has been provided an opportunity to learn with the additional targeted supports provided within a tiered instructional model should referral and eligibility for special education eligibility under the SLD category

69. West Virginia Department of Education 2009 This is a critical aspect of determining a SLD. Lack of appropriate instruction is not a new concept in IDEA. It is, however, the focus of determining a SLD using the RTI process. We will spend some time today discussing how this requirement affects our thinking, decision-making and practices.This is a critical aspect of determining a SLD. Lack of appropriate instruction is not a new concept in IDEA. It is, however, the focus of determining a SLD using the RTI process. We will spend some time today discussing how this requirement affects our thinking, decision-making and practices.

70. Considerations for Validating Underachievement West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Appropriate instruction in reading, written expression and mathematics Student?s primary language Limited English proficiency Environmental and cultural factors Excessive absences and patterns of attendance Interruptions in schooling Caveat about using excessive absences Give example on primary language vs ESL Caveat about using excessive absences Give example on primary language vs ESL

71. Validating Underachievement West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Students who demonstrate reasonable progress in response to research-based strategies and interventions should not be determined eligible under the SLD category using RTI criteria even though they may have academic weaknesses. This point is an important one to communicate to teachers and principals. This point is an important one to communicate to teachers and principals.

72. Ruling Out Lack of Instruction West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Has the student been provided opportunities for increasing levels of research-based instructional support? Were the tiers implemented with fidelity? Here are the critical questions to ask to rule out lack of instruction? They can be hard questions to ask and answer. Good communication and professional development can help? Principals especially must understand the implications for validating fidelity of the tiered model. If the 3-tier model is not solidly in place complications could arise. The EC must be confident that the tiered intervention process occurred for the student suspected of having a SLD. Districts must begin to think about how this accountability component will be communicated and monitored.Here are the critical questions to ask to rule out lack of instruction? They can be hard questions to ask and answer. Good communication and professional development can help? Principals especially must understand the implications for validating fidelity of the tiered model. If the 3-tier model is not solidly in place complications could arise. The EC must be confident that the tiered intervention process occurred for the student suspected of having a SLD. Districts must begin to think about how this accountability component will be communicated and monitored.

73. Essential Questions at Each Tier West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Has the core program succeeded by bringing a high percentage of students to mastery? Has the core program succeeded by bringing a high percentage of students to mastery?

74. Assessing Provision of Appropriate Instruction West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Principal?s regular review of lesson plans Principal?s regular observations of classroom instruction (e.g., walk-through documentation) Intervention lesson plans and progress monitoring data that document nature, frequency and duration Fidelity checklists completed by teachers Fidelity checklists completed by content specialists or curriculum supervisors Here are some examples of how fidelity might be assessed or monitored. Each of these actions will contribute to building confidence in a school?s implementation of the tired model.Here are some examples of how fidelity might be assessed or monitored. Each of these actions will contribute to building confidence in a school?s implementation of the tired model.

75. RTI Fidelity Checklist West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Serves as verification of RTI process Completed by principal Submitted to SAT and EC Ensures appropriateness of the referral Intended to document fidelity of RTI process Included in the guidance document appendix is the RTI Fidelity Checklist. It is a recommended, not required, form but I think you will see it?s usefulness as we discuss it. It is designed to be completed by the building principal and is basically an assurance that the RTI process was implemented for the individual student who is being referred for evaluation. The principal will verify that Tiers I, II and III were provided. Turn to the second last sheet in your training materials packet to find a copy of the form. In your same-county groups, review each section of the form and discuss how you will communicate these concepts to your principals, teachers and SATs. We will further discuss Tier III when you finish in your groups.Included in the guidance document appendix is the RTI Fidelity Checklist. It is a recommended, not required, form but I think you will see it?s usefulness as we discuss it. It is designed to be completed by the building principal and is basically an assurance that the RTI process was implemented for the individual student who is being referred for evaluation. The principal will verify that Tiers I, II and III were provided. Turn to the second last sheet in your training materials packet to find a copy of the form. In your same-county groups, review each section of the form and discuss how you will communicate these concepts to your principals, teachers and SATs. We will further discuss Tier III when you finish in your groups.

76. RTI Fidelity Checklist West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Activity: Groups of participants review each Tier as listed on these three slides. They will either confirm understanding or generate questions for whole group discussion/response. How will district principals be trained in using this form??? Record questions and answer. Make a ?parking lot? for questions needing further research or confirmation.Activity: Groups of participants review each Tier as listed on these three slides. They will either confirm understanding or generate questions for whole group discussion/response. How will district principals be trained in using this form??? Record questions and answer. Make a ?parking lot? for questions needing further research or confirmation.

77. RTI Fidelity Checklist West Virginia Department of Education 2009

78. RTI Fidelity Checklist West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Tier III may be implemented prior to a referral for a multidisciplinary evaluation or simultaneously with the evaluation request. ? Tier III may be implemented prior to a referral for a multidisciplinary evaluation or simultaneously with the evaluation request. ?

79. Two Options for Tier III Student is not suspected to have a SLD Student is suspected to have a SLD West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Implement Tier III and continue to monitor student?s response to intervention; and Reconvene the SAT periodically to review and discuss the student?s achievement Based on Tier II data, convene the SAT to initiate a multidisciplinary evaluation; Implement Tier III and collect data on the student?s response to intervention; and Use the data to make the EC decision Review slide. Reinforce notion that not all students who require the intensity of Tier III will be suspected of having a SLD. Examples include students for whom English is a second language, students with high mobility/attendance issues, students who respond to Tier III and acquire needed skills.Review slide. Reinforce notion that not all students who require the intensity of Tier III will be suspected of having a SLD. Examples include students for whom English is a second language, students with high mobility/attendance issues, students who respond to Tier III and acquire needed skills.

80. Advance Organizer West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The last segment of our training focuses on the documentation requirements for SLD.The last segment of our training focuses on the documentation requirements for SLD.

81. RTI Documentation Requirements SLD Team Report West Virginia Department of Education 2009

82. SLD Team Report West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Has been revised to accommodate all areas in which a SLD may be manifested (e.g., reading, mathematics, written expression) Includes IDEA requirements Is completed when a student is suspected of having a SLD Accompanies the Eligibility Committee Report Access on line at http://wvde.state.wv.us/specialeducationcompliance/resources.html You have a copy of the latest revision to the SLD Team Report which must be completed for each student suspected of having a SLD. It is to accompany the Eligibility Committee Report. It will be online soon at the URL noted on the slide. It?s been created in Excel and must not be changed. You have a copy of the latest revision to the SLD Team Report which must be completed for each student suspected of having a SLD. It is to accompany the Eligibility Committee Report. It will be online soon at the URL noted on the slide. It?s been created in Excel and must not be changed.

83. SLD Team Report West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Based on multiple and convergent sources of data, the student?s current level of performance is below grade expectations in one or more of the following areas: The student has been provided high-quality, research-based instruction and intervention Progress monitoring results indicate minimal or low response to intervention Let?s take a closer look at how the form addresses each compliance issue related to determining SLD.Let?s take a closer look at how the form addresses each compliance issue related to determining SLD.

84. SLD Team Report West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The student?s severe underachievement is NOT primarily a result of any of the following: If NO, note exclusion factor and explain: ____________ The EC has reviewed the following required documentation: Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals (progress monitoring data) Observation of student academic performance The EC has concluded that the student has a specific learning disability Each district will develop and communicate procedures for how and where the RTI documentation should filed.Each district will develop and communicate procedures for how and where the RTI documentation should filed.

85. Reevaluation & Private Schools West Virginia Department of Education 2009

86. Reevaluations Review existing evaluation data Current IEP and progress toward meeting annual goals Evaluations and information provided by parent/student Current classroom-based, local or state assessments and classroom-based observations Observations by teachers and related service providers Conduct additional evaluations if needed

87. RTI and Private Schools West Virginia Department of Education 2009 RTI is a component of the evaluation process for SLD Same evaluation components and procedures apply Option to collect documentation as part of the referral process Good communication with private schools regarding the implications for eligibility is essential. You may want to distribute the Parent Brochure or provide access information to the online version. For districts with large numbers of private school referrals, you may want to present this information formally and provide opportunities for private school staff to ask questions.Good communication with private schools regarding the implications for eligibility is essential. You may want to distribute the Parent Brochure or provide access information to the online version. For districts with large numbers of private school referrals, you may want to present this information formally and provide opportunities for private school staff to ask questions.

88. RTI and Private Schools West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Data that demonstrate that prior to or as part of the referral process, the student was provided appropriate instruction in general education settings; and Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, which was provided to the student?s parents (i.e., benchmark and?progress monitoring data).

89. RTI and Private Schools West Virginia Department of Education 2009 The evaluation team, which includes the parent, private school representatives and district personnel, develop a data collection plan as part of the multidisciplinary evaluation. Every effort should be made to inform the parent and private school personnel of the need to address the student?s academic difficulties through the provision of intervention and use of frequent progress monitoring. Again, good communication is critical.Again, good communication is critical.

90. RTI Knowledge Rating Scale West Virginia Department of Education 2009 We are almost finished with today?s training session. The last sheet in your Training Materials packet revisits the RTI Knowledge Rating Scale. Take 5 minutes to complete the ?after? worksheet which will be used as a venue for submitting remaining questions. We are almost finished with today?s training session. The last sheet in your Training Materials packet revisits the RTI Knowledge Rating Scale. Take 5 minutes to complete the ?after? worksheet which will be used as a venue for submitting remaining questions.

91. Post Your RTI for SLD Questions West Virginia Department of Education 2009

92. Contact Information West Virginia Department of Education 2009 Linda Palenchar RTI Coordinator Office of Special Programs lpalench@access.k12.wv.us


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