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Determining Eligibility for Specific Learning Disabilities. Policy, Procedures and Processes. March 2009. The Guidance Document Process. Included a committee of stakeholders One school-level RTI coordinator/interventionist Two principals One district special education director

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determining eligibility for specific learning disabilities

Determining Eligibility for Specific Learning Disabilities

Policy, Procedures and Processes

March 2009

the guidance document process
The Guidance Document Process
  • Included a committee of stakeholders
      • One school-level RTI coordinator/interventionist
      • Two principals
      • One district special education director
      • One district special education coordinator
      • Five school psychologists
      • State RTI Coordinator
      • Assistant Director, OAA
  • Was based on current research, professional judgment, and experience gained from implementing the RTI process in RTI Demonstration Schools

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

the committee
The Committee

Angela Madia, Harrison County

Beverly Winter, Raleigh County

Brenda Clark, Tyler County

Bonnie Vickers, Kanawha County

Conrae Lucas-Adkins, Lincoln County

Ed Morgret, Hampshire County

Hope Reagan, Berkeley County

Jim Brown, WVDE

Kerynn Sovic, Jackson County

Linda Palenchar, WVDE

Marianne Annie, Kanawha County

Susanne Vila, Wetzel County

Vic Fisher, Harrison County

professional development plan 2009 2010
Professional Development Plan 2009-2010

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

guidelines for identifying students with specific learning disabilities
Guidelines for Identifying Students with Specific Learning Disabilities
  • Guidelines to inform practice and decision-making
  • Background information
  • Strategies and procedures to provide consistency across schools and districts
  • Resources

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

policy guidance
Policy & Guidance

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

revised timelines for implementation
Revised Timelines for Implementation

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

big ideas
Big Ideas
  • RTI conveys a new way of thinking about determining specific learning disabilities
  • Decision-making for determining a specific learning disability is a data-driven process
  • RTI data collection and formal evaluations inform the SLD decision-making process

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

you will know
You Will Know…
  • The nature, roles and responsibilities of the various teaming structures needed within the RTI framework
  • Procedures for verifying each of the SLD criteria
      • Level of Learning
      • Rate of Learning
      • Exclusionary Factors
      • Validating Underachievement
  • How to document the written requirements for SLD determinations

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

you will understand
You Will Understand…
  • EC members need a comprehensive understanding of the student, his/her educational environment, educational history, and response to intervention
  • The EC decision-making process relies on high quality:
          • Collaboration
          • Data analysis
          • Documentation

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

essential question
Essential Question

How can educators, school psychologists, and parents feel confident in making an appropriate SLD eligibility decision?

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti knowledge rating scale
RTI Knowledge Rating Scale

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

advance organizer
Advance Organizer

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

connecting rti and sld
Connecting RTI and SLD

The Framework and the Identification Process

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

response to intervention is
Response to Intervention is…

a process of teaching students to read, write and do math . . .

and perhaps concluding that a few have specific learning disabilities.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti continuum of support for all
RTI Continuum of Support for All

Intensive

Strategic

Universal

slide17

Opportunity to Learn

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

two purposes of rti
Two Purposes of RTI
  • Provides an academic support system for all students through tiered instruction, progress monitoring, and teaming
  • Is used as a method for identifying students with specific learning disabilities

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

research base for using rti as a component of sld identification
Research Base for Using RTI as a Component of SLD Identification

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti and sld
RTI and SLD
  • West Virginia’s SLD eligibility criteria no longer include use of the IQ-achievement discrepancy
  • The data collected through the tiered instruction model is a component of a multidisciplinary evaluation for SLD
  • SLD is characterized by:
    • Achievement that is substantially below grade-level, and
    • Documented low response to research-based intervention
ld identification considerations
LD Identification Considerations
  • Low academic growth does not necessarily constitute a specific learning disability.
  • If the low-performing student does not grow where other students are thriving, targeted intervention needs to be considered.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

the paradigm shift
The Paradigm Shift

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

  • Work with a partner
  • Read “Connecting the RTI Framework to SLD Determination” pp. 2-7
  • Reflect on the changes in identifying students with SLD
  • Complete the Paradigm Shift Worksheet
conceptual framework for sld identification
Conceptual Framework for SLD Identification

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

advance organizer24
Advance Organizer

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

problem solving and teaming
Problem Solving and Teaming

Laying the Foundation for Decision-Making

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

problem solving process
Problem Solving Process

Step 1: Problem Identification

Step 4: Evaluating Response to Intervention

DATA

Step 2: Problem Analysis

Step 3: Intervention Planning & Implementation

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

teaming structures
Teaming Structures

Each collaborative structure provides a framework and process for discussing students’ educational concerns.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

iit and sat roles responsibilities
IIT and SATRoles & Responsibilities

IIT

  • Teachers working together to:
    • Identify students for tiered intervention
    • Group students
    • Select and develop targeted interventions
    • Monitor student progress and effectiveness of interventions

SAT

  • Review and validate documentation collected during the instruction and intervention process
  • Make recommendations for further, broader problem solving activities
  • Initiate multidisciplinary evaluations for special education

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

sat forms
SAT Forms
  • Local districts are encouraged to develop SAT forms that meet the needs of their students and schools and communicate problem solving activities to parents
  • Sample SAT forms are available on the OSP RTI web site at http://wvde.state.wv.us/osp/RtIForms.html

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

mdet and ec roles responsibilities
MDET and EC Roles & Responsibilities

MDET

  • Review and discuss existing data collected during the tiered intervention process
  • Determine the need for additional evaluations that inform instruction and eligibility decision-making
  • Select appropriate assessments to confirm or reject a SLD hypothesis

EC

  • Review and discuss student’s response to intervention
  • Review and discuss results of additional evaluations
  • Determine if multiple data sources indicate a specific learning disability
  • Document the presence of a SLD

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

roles responsibilities at a glance
Roles & Responsibilities At-a-Glance

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

student support teams sort
Student Support Teams Sort
  • Read the roles/responsibilities of the various teaming structures
  • Categorize each according to:
      • IIT
      • SAT
      • MDET
      • EC
      • IEP Team

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

parents as partners in the rti process
Parents as Partners in the RTI Process

The district must document that the student’s parents were notified about the following:

  • The state’s policies regarding the amount and nature of student performance data that would be collected and the general education services that would be provided;
  • Strategies for increasing student’s rate of learning; and
  • The parents’ right to request an evaluation at any time throughout the RTI process

http://wvde.state.wv.us/osp/ResponsetoInterventionParentsGuide.pdf

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

parent requests for evaluation
Parent Requests for Evaluation
  • The law is clear - a parent may request an evaluation at any time during the RTI process
  • If a parent requests an evaluation, the district may choose to:
    • Request permission to evaluate, OR
    • Decline the request to evaluate and issue prior written notice (PWN) in accordance with the regulations

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

determining levels of support through problem solving p 14
Determining Levels of Support through Problem Solving (p.14)

Identifying Students for Tier II Support

Identifying Students for Tier III Support

Use September universal screening results to identify students at risk for failure

Group by similar academic needs

Provide 2 rounds of Tier II

Continue problem solving activities throughout Tier II

Use results of 2 rounds of Tier II intervention to determine appropriate Tier III intervention

May be provided simultaneously with a request to evaluate

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

advance organizer36
Advance Organizer

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

multidisciplinary evaluation components
Multidisciplinary Evaluation Components

Selecting Assessments to Inform Instruction

and Determine SLD

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

slide38
West Virginia Department of Education 2009

A complementary relationship between the RTI process and psychoeducational testing exists in evaluating for a potential learning disability.

rti as a component of the evaluation for sld
RTI as a Component of the Evaluation for SLD
  • Data collected throughout the RTI process is used as a component of the multidisciplinary evaluation
  • Calculating a severe discrepancy is no longer part of the SLD determination process
  • Policy 2419 phases out the use of IQ-achievement discrepancy to determine SLD

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti documentation constitutes existing data
RTI Documentation Constitutes Existing Data…

Most information is gathered through the course of the student’s instruction and intervention…

  • A chronology of the student’s educational history
  • Benchmark and progress monitoring data
  • Results of diagnostic assessments to inform the intervention process (e.g., Quick Phonics Screener, Phonological Awareness Screening Inventory, Basic Reading Inventory)
  • Specific documentation of the nature and intensity of general classroom instruction
  • Comprehensive documentation of the nature, frequency, and duration of intervention
considerations for selecting formal assessments
Considerations for Selecting Formal Assessments
  • In conducting an evaluation, MDETs select assessment procedures that will link eligibility determinations to instruction.
  • Assessments that focus on specific features of a student’s academic difficulty are more useful than measures that address global academic areas.
  • For the student who exhibits weaknesses in areas such as memory, attention, or processing speed, the evaluation battery addresses those areas.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

cross battery assessment xba approach for determining sld
Cross Battery Assessment (XBA) Approach for Determining SLD
  • Cross battery assessment(XBA) is a process of selecting subtests that target specific cognitive domains.
  • XBA results and interpretations inform and guide instructional approaches and strategies for the student.
  • X BA includes multiple measures for arriving at a conclusion that confirms or rejects the hypothesis made by the SAT and MDET.
  • Lists included in the SLD guidance document are not exclusive. Professional judgment and expertise should guide the selection of tests.
observation requirement
Observation Requirement
  • The student suspected of having a SLD must be observed in the learning environment, including the general classroom setting, to document the student’s academic performance and behavior in the areas of difficulty.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

observation requirement44
Observation Requirement
  • Use information from observation done before the student was referred for an evaluation OR
  • At least one member of the evaluation team conducts an observation after the student has been referred for evaluation and parent consent is obtained

New

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

observation and parent consent
Observation and Parent Consent

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

observation requirements
Observation Requirements

Before the Referral

After the Referral

Running records

Principal walk-throughs

Informal or anecdotal information that addresses specific referral issues, instructional practices and fidelity of instruction

Observations made by reading specialists, co-teachers, counselors

Formal classroom observations conducted by a member of the evaluation team

Information regarding setting demands, student behaviors, teaching practices, and any other related curriculum and instruction issues that may affect student performance

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

activity designing the evaluation
Activity: Designing the Evaluation
  • Read the Case Study entitled “Danielle”
  • Work with your group to create an assessment battery matched to Danielle’s learning characteristics and performance data
  • Keep the goal of instructional planning in mind
  • Record your decisions on the large chart paper
  • Be prepared to share your decisions

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

which did you consider in planning the evaluation
Which did you consider in planning the evaluation?
  • Rate of learning
  • Level of academic performance in one of the 8 areas for SLD
  • Memory
  • Processing speed
  • Attention/concentration
  • Visual motor integration
  • Behavior
  • Executive functioning
  • Speech/language
  • Primary language
  • Phonological processing
  • Academic fluency
  • Others?

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

advance organizer49
Advance Organizer

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

sld eligibility standards
SLD Eligibility Standards

Operationalizing the SLD Criteria

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

policy 2419 sld criteria
Policy 2419 SLD Criteria

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

sld guidance document scavenger hunt
SLD Guidance Document Scavenger Hunt

Work with a partner at your table. Use the SLD Eligibility Standards section, to answer each question on the Scavenger Hunt worksheet.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

slide53

All the data have been collected…What constitutes a convergence of evidence?

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

good decisions are based on
Good decisions are based on

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

four questions for eligibility
Four Questions for Eligibility

Does the child achieve adequately for the child’s age or meet State-approved grade level standards?

Has the child shown a lack of response to scientifically based instruction?

Have other factors or conditions been ruled out?

Are the student’s academic concerns the result of a lack of instruction?

Policy 2419 Eligibility Standards

address these questions

standard 1 level of learning
Standard 1: Level of Learning
  • Addresses mastery of grade-level content
  • Evidenced by significant and persistent low academic achievement even after intervention
  • Guidelines for Determining Severe Underachievement assist the EC in making this decision

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

defining severe underachievement
Defining Severe Underachievement
  • Research indicates that a score of the 30th percentile on a nationally normed benchmark test or individual achievement test is equivalent to a proficient score on most statewide tests (Kovaleski, 2009).
  • To demonstrate inadequate achievement relative to this standard, West Virginia is using at or below the 8th percentile to meet the SLD qualification.
  • IQ score is not a comparable comparison against academic performance.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

wv guidelines for determining severe underachievement
WV Guidelines for Determining Severe Underachievement
  • Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) results that include a minimum of 6 data points that reflect at least 16 weeks of intervention that are at or below the 8th percentile.
  • Norm-referenced achievement test score at or below the 8th percentile.
  • Inadequate performance as indicated by assessment of grade-level CSOs

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

purpose of the severe underachievement guidelines
Purpose of the Severe Underachievement Guidelines
  • No single data source is more important than another
  • Multiple sources establish a convergence of data and help the EC reach a logical conclusion about the student’s underachievement
  • The Severe Underachievement Guidelines (i.e., 8th percentile) are not fixed rules used to deny eligibility

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

standard 2 rate of learning
Standard 2: Rate of Learning
  • Student’s rate of progress as compared to expected rate in a given content area
  • Determined by comparing the slope of the student’s data points with the slope of the expected learning rate (aim line)
  • Standard 2 is met when the student’s learning rate or growth is substantially below grade level peers

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

progress monitoring resources
Progress Monitoring Resources

http://www.studentprogress.org/default.asp

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

understanding slope of progress
Understanding Slope of Progress
  • Progress monitoring considers student performance over time
  • Change is reflected in slope
  • Slope calculation addresses both the expected and actual rates of performance

Follow-up training will include specific information on using slope within the SLD identification process.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

using acuity for rti
Using Acuity for RTI

http://wvde.state.wv.us/oaa/acuityfaq.php

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

using acuity for rti64
Using Acuity for RTI
  • Acuity is an online/paper-pencil platform for grades 3-11 for Mathematics, Reading/Language Arts, Science and Social Studies
  • Acuity includes:
      • WVDE authored benchmark tests aligned with WESTEST2
      • Custom test capability using 25,000 items aligned with WV 21st Century CSOs
      • Instructional resources to target instruction
      • Immediate reporting capabilities

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

using acuity for rti65
Using Acuity for RTI
  • Progress monitoring assessments comprised of multiple measures of critical skills will be developed by the WVDE
  • Acuity progress monitoring measures will address critical academic components such as vocabulary, reading comprehension and mathematics
  • Instructional Resources can be used to support instruction

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

standard 3 exclusion factors
Standard 3: Exclusion Factors
  • Standard 3 is met when the EC can rule out:
      • A visual, hearing, or motor disability
      • Mental impairment
      • Behavioral/emotional disorder
      • Cultural factors
      • Environmental or economic disadvantage
      • Limited English proficiency
      • Lack of appropriate instruction

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

slide67

Considerations for Validating Exclusion Factors

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

(Adapted from Kovaleski, 2009)

validating underachievement ruling out lack of instruction
Validating Underachievement(Ruling Out Lack of Instruction)
  • Only after a student has been provided an opportunity to learn with the additional targeted supports provided within a tiered instructional model should referral and eligibility for special education eligibility under the SLD category

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

slide69

The EC ensures that the underachievement of a student suspected of having a SLD is not due to lack of appropriate instruction in reading, including the five essential components of reading, written expression or mathematics…

Phonemic awareness

Phonics

Fluency

Vocabulary

Comprehension

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

considerations for validating underachievement
Considerations for Validating Underachievement
  • Appropriate instruction in reading, written expression and mathematics
  • Student’s primary language
  • Limited English proficiency
  • Environmental and cultural factors
  • Excessive absences and patterns of attendance
  • Interruptions in schooling

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

validating underachievement
Validating Underachievement

Students who demonstrate reasonable progress in response to research-based strategies and interventions should not be determined eligible under the SLD category using RTI criteria even though they may have academic weaknesses.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

ruling out lack of instruction
Ruling Out Lack of Instruction
  • Has the student been provided opportunities for increasing levels of research-based instructional support?
  • Were the tiers implemented with fidelity?

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

essential questions at each tier
Essential Questions at Each Tier

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

assessing provision of appropriate instruction
Assessing Provision of Appropriate Instruction
  • Principal’s regular review of lesson plans
  • Principal’s regular observations of classroom instruction (e.g., walk-through documentation)
  • Intervention lesson plans and progress monitoring data that document nature, frequency and duration
  • Fidelity checklists completed by teachers
  • Fidelity checklists completed by content specialists or curriculum supervisors

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti fidelity checklist
RTI Fidelity Checklist
  • Serves as verification of RTI process
  • Completed by principal
  • Submitted to SAT and EC
  • Ensures appropriateness

of the referral

  • Intended to document fidelity of RTI process

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti fidelity checklist76
RTI Fidelity Checklist

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti fidelity checklist77
RTI Fidelity Checklist

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti fidelity checklist78
RTI Fidelity Checklist

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

two options for tier iii
Two Options for Tier III

Student is not suspected to have a SLD

Student is suspected to have a SLD

Implement Tier III and continue to monitor student’s response to intervention; and

Reconvene the SAT periodically to review and discuss the student’s achievement

Based on Tier II data, convene the SAT to initiate a multidisciplinary evaluation;

Implement Tier III and collect data on the student’s response to intervention; and

Use the data to make the EC decision

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

advance organizer80
Advance Organizer

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti documentation requirements
RTI Documentation Requirements

SLD Team Report

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

sld team report
SLD Team Report
  • Has been revised to accommodate all areas in which a SLD may be manifested (e.g., reading, mathematics, written expression)
  • Includes IDEA requirements
  • Is completed when a student is suspected of having a SLD
  • Accompanies the Eligibility Committee Report
  • Access on line at http://wvde.state.wv.us/specialeducationcompliance/resources.html

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

sld team report83
SLD Team Report
  • Based on multiple and convergent sources of data, the student’s current level of performance is below grade expectations in one or more of the following areas:
  • The student has been provided high-quality, research-based instruction and intervention
  • Progress monitoring results indicate minimal or low response to intervention

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

sld team report84
SLD Team Report
  • The student’s severe underachievement is NOT primarily a result of any of the following:

If NO, note exclusion factor and explain: ____________

  • The EC has reviewed the following required documentation:
      • Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals (progress monitoring data)
      • Observation of student academic performance
  • The EC has concluded that the student has a specific learning disability

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

reevaluation private schools
Reevaluation & Private Schools

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

reevaluations
Reevaluations
  • Review existing evaluation data
        • Current IEP and progress toward meeting annual goals
        • Evaluations and information provided by parent/student
        • Current classroom-based, local or state assessments and classroom-based observations
        • Observations by teachers and related service providers
  • Conduct additional evaluations if needed
rti and private schools
RTI and Private Schools
  • RTI is a component of the evaluation process for SLD
  • Same evaluation components and procedures apply
  • Option to collect documentation as part of the referral process

Policy 2419, Chapter 8, Child Find Requirements

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti and private schools88
RTI and Private Schools
  • Data that demonstrate that prior to or as part of the referral process, the student was provided appropriate instruction in general education settings; and
  • Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, which was provided to the student’s parents (i.e., benchmark and progress monitoring data).

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti and private schools89
RTI and Private Schools
  • The evaluation team, which includes the parent, private school representatives and district personnel, develop a data collection plan as part of the multidisciplinary evaluation.
  • Every effort should be made to inform the parent and private school personnel of the need to address the student’s academic difficulties through the provision of intervention and use of frequent progress monitoring.

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

rti knowledge rating scale90
RTI Knowledge Rating Scale

Let’s see how we rate now…

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

post your rti for sld questions
Post Your RTI for SLD Questions

http://rtiwv.edublogs.org/

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

contact information
Contact Information

Linda Palenchar

RTI Coordinator

Office of Special Programs

[email protected]

West Virginia Department of Education 2009

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