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Oxyacetylene Welding. By Matt Scott. Introduction. OAW is a welding process that heats the base metal with a controlled mixture of acetylene and oxygen gas. The heat from the torch allows for the melting and mixing of the base metal and filler metal to form a solid weld.

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Oxyacetylene welding

Oxyacetylene Welding

By Matt Scott


Introduction
Introduction

  • OAW is a welding process that heats the base metal with a controlled mixture of acetylene and oxygen gas. The heat from the torch allows for the melting and mixing of the base metal and filler metal to form a solid weld.


8 steps to making a quality weld
8 Steps to Making a Quality Weld

  • Safety Check

  • Select a tip based on metal thickness

  • Adjust gas pressures

  • Ensure the tip is clean

  • Set torch to neutral flame

  • Get Comfortable

  • Maintain a consistent Coupling Distance

  • Oscillate torch to ensure fusion.


Step 1 safety
Step 1 – Safety

  • At a Glance

    • Stop – smell, look and listen before using!

    • Did you ensure the cylinders where chained up and hoses where in good shape?

    • Did you scan the whole system to see if there was anything odd?

  • SAFETY FIRST!!!!!!!!!



Step 4 ensure the tip is clean
Step 4 – Ensure the Tip is Clean

  • Indicators of a clean tip are:

    • Preheat flame is sharp and ¼” in length.

    • Secondary flame does not splinter


Step 5 set torch to neutral flame
Step 5 - Set torch to Neutral Flame

  • A neutral flame is when you have the same ratio of acetylene and oxygen burning

  • Most efficient welding flame setting

  • Flame temperature is 5800 Fahrenheit


Step 6 get comfortable
Step 6 – Get Comfortable

  • Steady yourself when welding


Mild steel welds
Mild Steel Welds

  • Oxyacetylene welding is limited to thin metal sections or when portability is important

  • Today almost exclusively used on thin metal

  • An electric arc welding processes is usually used for welding thicker metal


Mild steel welds1
Mild Steel Welds

  • Easiest metal to gas weld

  • Welds with 100% integrity possible

  • Secondary flame shields the molten weld pool from the air

  • Atmospheric oxygen combines with carbon monoxide to produce carbon dioxide

  • Carbon dioxide forces surrounding atmosphere away from the weld


Factors affecting the weld
Factors Affecting the Weld

  • The torch tip size controls the weld bead width, penetration, and speed

  • Torch angle and the angle between the inner cone and the metal effect:

    • Speed of melting

    • Size of the molten weld pool

  • Welding rod size and torch manipulation control the weld bead characteristics


Step 7 8 coupling distance and torch manipulation

Step 7&8 Coupling Distance and Torch Manipulation

“Flashing” the flame off the metal will allow the molten weld pool to cool and reduce in size.



Characteristics of the weld
Characteristics of the Weld stronger

  • Molten weld pool must be protected by the secondary flame

  • Weld crater susceptible to cracking

  • Number of sparks in the air increases just before a burn through

  • Burnout does not happen to molten metal until it reaches the kindling temperature


Outside corner joint
Outside Corner Joint stronger

  • Flat outside corner joint made with or without filler metal

  • One of the easiest welded joints to make

  • Filler metal not needed if sheets are tacked properly

  • Filler metal is added uniformly


Lap joint
Lap Joint stronger

  • Flatlap jointeasily welded with basic manipulations

  • Use caution when heating the two sheets

    • Both sheets start melting at the same time

  • Direct the flame on the bottom sheet away from top sheet

  • Filler rod added to the top sheet

  • Gravity pulls the molten weld pool down


Tee joint
Tee Joint stronger

  • Flat tee joint is difficult because the Uneven heating

  • Large percentage of welding heat is reflected back on the torch

  • Angle the torch in the direction of weld travel (push technique)

  • Adjust the flame to be somewhat oxidizing

  • Keep a tight coupling distance to focus heat at the root.


Out of position welding
Out-of-position Welding stronger

  • Welds performed in position other than flat

  • The following welds are out of position:

    • Vertical

    • Horizontal

    • Overhead

  • Somewhat more difficult than flat welds


Common oaw vocabulary
Common OAW Vocabulary stronger

  • Base Metal

  • Weld Metal

  • Filler Metal

  • Toe and Crater of weld

  • Delivery Pressure vs. Working Pressure

  • Flashback vs. Backfire

  • Oxygen vs. Air


Summary
Summary stronger

  • Learning to control the heat input to the weld by changing the torch angle, height, or travel speed is important

  • Oxyacetylene welding is the process of preference for thin materials

  • The most common problem with OFW welding is heat and weld distortion


Where to get more information
Where to Get More Information stronger

  • Owners Manual

  • Welding Principles and Applications by Larry Jeffus

  • PCC Welding


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