Why is socrates life important
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Why is Socrates’ life important?. How do I Know ?. Love of Wisdom: Triple A Set of Tools. Analysis Break down Assessment: Coherent, Complete, Correct? Argument The aim of argument, or of discussion, should not be victory, but progress.” – Joseph Joubert.

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Why is Socrates’ life important?

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Why is Socrates’ life important?


How do I Know?


Love of Wisdom: Triple A Set of Tools

  • Analysis

    • Break down

  • Assessment:

    • Coherent, Complete, Correct?

  • Argument

    • The aim of argument, or of discussion, should not be victory, but progress.” – Joseph Joubert


How many beliefs do you hold?

“Man is what he believes.”

-- Anton Chekov


Two parts of a Belief

Objective : Content of the Proposition

Subjective: the mental state holding a Proposition

Belief leads to action

I desire that…

I spend time editing this slide

I believe someone …

Belief+Desire = Action


How do we know?

Why do we try to know…?


Believing is an Activity

  • Subject

  • Object

  • What is the goal of a belief? What are you trying to attain?


We want our beliefs to be True

  • Belief => Knowledge (or a properly justified true belief)

  • Knowledge => Truth

    “To know something is to know it is true”


Skepticism


Role of Skepticism: Why do we have the beliefs that we hold?

By doubting we come at truth.

Mmmmm?

  • We can never know. OR

  • True knowledge is impossible.

    But how can you say that?


Source Skepticism Beliefs

  • Why do we have any beliefs that we hold?

  • Beliefs about:

    • The past

    • The present

    • The future

  • I believe that Plato taught Aristotle

  • I believe that my Mom is at home while I’m at school.

  • I believe that America will remain a democracy.


Sources of Belief

  • How do we know that sense experience is ever reliable?

  • Circular Reasoning!

    • My Memory

    • Testimony of others

    • My sense experience

    • Skeptic asks:

      • How do you know that human memory is ever reliable?

      • How do you know that others’ testimonies are reliable


    How do we know?

    • Epistemology: the study of how we know what we know

    • Empiricism

      • Locke, Hume

        “No man’s knowledge here can go beyond his experience” – John Locke


    Rationalism:

    • Cause and effect

    • Passage of time

    • Spatial awareness

    • If A is greater than B and B is greater than C, then A is greater than C.

    • Descartes


    What is rational?


    Evidentialism

    “It is wrong for anyone, anywhere, to believe anything without sufficient evidence. This is literally true always.”

    ?


    Belief Conservation Principle

    • For any proposition P:

      • If taking a certain cognitive stance toward P would require rejecting or doubting a vast number of current beliefs, and

      • You have no independent reason to reject or doubt all those other beliefs, and

      • You have no compelling reason to take up that cognitive stance toward P…

    • Then it is more rational for you not to take that cognitive stance toward P.


    Philosophy is the love of wisdom and the endeavor to attain it

    • You are as much a real person as you are deep. As with the depths of a diamond, the interior is twice as important as the surface. There are people who are all façade, like a house left unfinished when the funds run out. They have the entrance of a palace but the inner rooms of a cottage.

      • The Art of Worldly Wisdom, BalthasarGracian, 17th c


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