Serology introduction vocabulary
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Serology Introduction Vocabulary. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- the molecules that carry the body’s genetic information. Plasma - the fluid portion of unclotted blood Erythroctye - a red blood cell Serum - the liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed.

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  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- the molecules that carry the body’s genetic information.

  • Plasma- the fluid portion of unclotted blood

  • Erythroctye- a red blood cell

  • Serum- the liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed

  • Antigen- a substance, usually protein, that stimulates the body to produce antibodies against it.

  • Antibody- A protein in the blood serum that destroys or inactivates a specific antigen.

  • Antiserum- blood serum that contains specific antibodies.

  • Agglutination- the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody.

  • Serology- the study of antigen-antibody reaction.


  • 1901- Karl Landsteiner announced the discovery of the typing of blood.

  • First to recognize that all human blood was not the same

  • Classification system A-B-O system

  • Antigens impart specific characteristics to the red blood cells

  • Blood antigens are grouped into systems depending on their relationship to one another

  • Type A blood- each RBC has A antigens on its surface

  • Type B blood- have B antigens

  • Type AB- contain both A and B antigens

  • Type O- have neither A nor B antigens on their cells

  • The presence or absence of A and B antigens on the red blood cells determines a person’s blood type in the A-B-O system.

  • Another important blood antigen cells

  • Rh factor (D antigen)- people w/ D antigen are said to be Rh positive; those without are said to be Rh negative.

  • For EVERY antigen there exists a specific antibody.

  • Each antibody symbol contains the prefix anti- followed by the name of the antigen for which it is specific

  • EX: Anti-A is only specific for A antigen; Anti-b for B antigen

Review questions
Review Questions cells

  • Who discovered that blood in distinguishable by its group or type?

  • What is plasma? What percentage of blood content does plasma account for?

  • What is the fourth important antigen other than A, B, and O?