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WORKSHOP LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS IMPLEMENTATION. REGULATORY ISSUES ON TESTING. Eleonora Italia Enac Personnel Licensing Director. 3 - 5 March 2010 Rome - Italy. ICAO ANNEX 1. 1.2.9 LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY

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WORKSHOP LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS IMPLEMENTATION

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Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

WORKSHOP

LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS IMPLEMENTATION

REGULATORY ISSUES ON TESTING

Eleonora Italia

Enac Personnel Licensing Director

3 - 5 March 2010

Rome - Italy


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

ICAO ANNEX 1

1.2.9 LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY

Refers to pilots and flight navigators, ATCOs and aeronautical station operators

“Shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications”

TO THE LEVEL SPECIFIED IN THE LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS IN:

- ICAO ANNEX 1 APPENDIX 1

- ICAO doc. 9835

- ICAO Circular 318-AN/180


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

ICAO ANNEX 1 APPENDIX 1

To meet the language proficiency requirements contained in section 1.2.9 an applicant shall demonstrate

compliance with

the holistic descriptors at section 2 and

the ICAO Operational level of the ICAO rating scale

As a whole, the scale serves asbenchmarksfor training and testing, and in assisting candidates to attain the ICAO operational level

in a manner acceptable to the licensing authority


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

ACCEPTABLE TO THE AUTHORITY

WHICH ARE THE KEY CONCEPTS TO FOCUS ON FOR CONSIDERING THE DEMONSTRATION OF PROFICIENCY

ACCEPTABLE ?

THE STATE AVIATION AUTHORITIES MAINTAIN OVERSIGHT RESPONSIBILITIES


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

AVIATION LANGUAGE TESTING

DOC. 9835 CHAPTER 6

PURPOSES OF TESTING:

  • To fulfil ICAO provisions requiring that pilots and controllers demonstrate language proficiency sufficient for SAFE and EFFICIENT radiotelephony communications

  • To provide BENCHMARKS by which the EFFECTIVENESS of language training and learning may be evaluated

  • LANGUAGE TESTING IN AVIATION HAS HIGH STAKES BECAUSE CAREERS AND SAFETY ARE AT STAKE

  • Proficiency test⇒ evaluate OVERALL ability against a set of criteria

TESTS PURPOSE:


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

AVIATION LANGUAGE TESTING

  • 1. Provides RELIABLE and VALID results

  • 2. Are VALID – RELIABLE – EFFECTIVE – APPROPRIATE- PRACTICABLE

  • VALID: indicates the degree to which a test measures what is supposed to measure

  • RELIABLE: refers to the stability of the test, in terms of standard of evaluation and rating

  • PRACTICABLE: signifies the balance between resources required and resources available


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

TEST WASHBACK

ICAO CIRCULAR 318-AN/180

influence of testing on teaching and learning

POSITIVE WASHBACK ⇒ the test encourages learners and trainers to focus on PROFICIENT-BUILDING LANGUAGE learning activities, to improve proficiency level,

and NOT

to focus on the easier way to get a higher score

HIGH QUALITY TESTING WILL ENCOURAGE HIGH QUALITY TRAINING !!!


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

TESTING SERVICES RATHER THAN “A TEST” ARE REQUIRED

⇒ A TESTING SERVICE THAT CAN CONTINUALLY PROVIDE NEW TEST ITEMS

⇒ THAT CAN TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION DIFFERENT SCENARIOUS (AB INITIO PILOS AND ATCOs, PPL, PROFESSIONAL PILOTS AND ATCOs, HELICOPTER PILOTS, AEROPLANE PILOTS)

AND

⇒ A LARGE NUMBER OF RATERS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES

IS REQUIRED (6.6.1)

⇒ A TESTING SERVICE THAT CAN CONTINUALLY ASSURE SECURITY AND QUALITY CONTROL


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

BEST PRACTICE FOR LANGUAGE TESTING IN AVIATION (6.5.4)

  • TEST PREPARED WITH THE INPUT OF PROFESSIONAL TEST DEVELOPERS

  • WRITING TEST SPECIFICATIONS

  • DECIDING TEST METHOD AND CONTENT

  • DEVELOPING TEST ITEMS TRIALLING TEST ITEMS

  • ANALYSING THE RESULTS

  • REVISING TEST ITEMS

  • RE-TRIALLING THE TEST AND TEST ITEMS

  • VALIDATING THE TEST

  • ESTABLISHING A RATING PROCEDURE

  • ESTABLISHING A RATER TRAINING PROCESS AND A QUALITY CONTROL PROCESS

  • ESTABLISHING RECORD KEEPING ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

BEST PRACTICE FOR LANGUAGE TESTING IN AVIATION

  • RATERS AT LEAST TWO

  • - TRAINED, QUALIFIED, EXPERIENCED

  • - ABLE TO IDENTIFY DEFICIENCIES IN PERFORMANCE

  • ABLE TO GUIDE CANDIDATES TOWARDS LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  • INSPIRE TRUST AND GAIN THE CONFIDENCE OF BOTH THE COMMUNITY AND CANDIDATES

  • AGREE UPON STANDARDIZED PROCEDURES

  • COMMIT THE BEST PRACTICE (CODE OF ETHICS)

  • THEN, THE RATING SCALE IS USED TO MAKE INFORMED JUDGEMENTS ABOUT CANDIDATES


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

STANDARDIZED AND TRAINED RATERS

Initial and recurrent training documented – rater training records maintained – audit conducted and documented periodically

CAN ONLY GUARANTEE THE VALIDITY AND THE RELIABILITY OF THE TEST


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

PROFICIENCY TESTS

DIRECT

Candidate interacts with a tester directly or with other candidates while being observed by a tester.

Requires more time and human resources

Benefits: more natural, communicative

because of the interaction there is an infinite supply of tests prompts

SEMI-DIRECT

Speech samples are elicited based on pre-recorded prompts

Inflexibility

Benefits: test takers receive the same prompts

less time (more candidates tested at the same time)

Appropriate strategy: incorporate both direct and semi direct methods in a single testing system


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

HOWEVER

AUDIO AND VIDEO RECORDING

OF THE TEST PERFORMANCE IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED FOR

VERIFICATION AND RECORD-KEEPING PURPOSES

IT ALSO HELPS IN APPEALS PROCEDURES, WHICH HAVE TO BE ESTABLISHED


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

TEST ADMINISTRATION

CIRCULAR 318-AN/180

  • TO PUBLISH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF THE TEST

  • DOCUMENTED TEST RATING PROCESS AVAILABLE

  • DOCUMENTED INSTRUCTIONS TO TEST TAKERS, TEST ADMINISTRATION TEAMS, TEST RATERS AVAILABLE

  • TEST ADMINISTRATION POLICIES AND PROCEDURE AVAILABLE

  • DOCUMENTED APPEALS PROCEDURE ESTABLISHED


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

TEST SECURITY

  • ENFORCE SECURITY MEASURES TO ENSURE THE INTEGRITY OF THE TESTING PROCESS

  • TEST MATERIAL HELD IN CONFIDENCE AND WELL STORED, NOT PUBLISHED OR PROVIDED TO TEST TAKERS BEFORE THE TEST


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

RECORD-KEEPING

  • AUDIO AND/OR VIDEO RECORDING

  • EVALUATION SHEETS AND SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION

  • SCORE-REPORTING PROCESS


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

HOW ENAC ENFORCED LPR KEY CONCEPTS AND REQUIREMENTS

HOW ENAC ENFORCED LPR KEY CONCEPTS AND REQUIREMENTS

  • ONE TEST FOR PILOTS AND ONE TEST FOR ATCOs

    standardisation and uniformity of evaluation need

  • BOTH DIRECT AND SEMI-DIRECT METHODS IN THE TEST

  • EXAMINERS AND TEST ADMINISTRATORS APPLY TO ENAC

  • EXAMINERS CERTIFIED AFTER SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETING 20 HOURS ON SELF STUDYING, OVERSIGHT BY DISTANCE AND TWO DAYS OF STANDARDISATION AND CERTIFICATION SESSION HELD BY THE TEST DEVELOPER AND ENAC ⇒ 46 ACTIVE EXAMINERS

  • TEST ADMINISTRATORS BRIEFED AND TRAINED ON TEST ADMINISTRATION, SECURITY PROCEDURES AND RECORD-KEEPING

  • TEST CENTRES REQUIREMENTS EVALUATED BY ENAC, CERTIFIED BY THE TEST DEVELOPER ⇒ 39 TEST CENTRES CERTIFIED

  • THE LIST OF THE TEST CENTRES PUBLISHED ON ENAC WEB SITE


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

  • TEST CENTRES AUDITED BY ENAC

  • TWO RATERS

  • RESULTS CONFIRMED AFTER THE SECOND RATE

  • TEST RESULT ENDORSED BY ENAC ON THE PILOT’S LICENCE:

    “language proficiency : ENGLISH Level ….. EXP. ……

    date of the test + 3 years (Lv. 4)

    date of the test + 6 years (Lv. 5)

    ITALIAN Level 6

  • DATA BASE WITH TEST RESULTS AVAILABLE TO ALL ENAC AIRPORT OFFICERS

  • IN CASE OF DEMONSTRATION OF PROFICIENCY BELOW LEVEL 4:

    “restricted to VFR domestic activity, other than public transportation”


Workshop language proficiency requirements implementation

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