Political instability and its effects on Tourism. Abstract.
According to Poirier (2000) tourism today is second only to oil as the world’s leading export commodity, accounting for global earnings of more than $300 billion, or nearly 25 per cent of total world GNP. Over the last two decades, tourism has proved to be the world’s fastest growing economic sector, with average growth of 7.1 per cent per year in arrivals and 12.5 per cent in receipts. Despite these statistics, tourism growth in many countries has not been this high, in particular those countries confronted with various political instabilities that have caused to retard development in tourism.
“Any evidence of domestic turmoil is likely to result in a decision not to visit that country. “Ankomah and Crompton (1990, p19)
Unwillingness on the part of many decision makers both in government and in the private sector to acknowledge the political nature of tourism.
Has tourism been affected by political instability? Effects of Political violence
China - Tiananmen Square, June 4 1989
Fiji - 1987: As a result of a mainly non-Fijian government being elected.
dropped by 70 per cent.
Effects of Civil War
Sub Saharan Africa
The First Gulf War, 1990
Massive impact on tourist visitation to the Middle East
Broader impact on international tourism because of potential for terrorist attacks
Ongoing political instability in North and South Korea.
Summer Olympics (1988) was used to refute the idea of Korea as a “dangerous place to visit”.
Despite the considerable body of evidence on the effects of political instability on both tourism income and potential for negative social and cultural outcomes, tourism management courses do not include any serious discussion of international politics and its influence on tourism. This paper, which is part of an ongoing research into risk management in tourism, attempts to address that by discussing the ways in which the political nature of tourism can be incorporated into tourism management subjects, particularly at postgraduate level.