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CS 320 Interaction Design. INTERACTION DESIGN PROCESS Textbook: S. Heim, The Resonant Interface: HCI Foundations for Interaction Design [Chapter 3] Addison-Wesley, 2007 February 28, 2011. Outline. Interaction Design Processes On Midterm 1 (March 21, 2011)

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CS 320 Interaction Design

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Cs 320 interaction design l.jpg

CS 320 Interaction Design

INTERACTION DESIGN PROCESS

Textbook:

S. Heim, The Resonant Interface:

HCI Foundations for Interaction Design [Chapter 3]

Addison-Wesley, 2007

February 28, 2011


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Outline

Interaction Design Processes

On Midterm 1 (March 21, 2011)

More on Project Part 1 (Concept)

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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Iterative Design

User-Centered Design

Interaction Design Models:

Basic Software Engineering Model (Waterfall SE)

Basic Human-Computer Interaction Model (HCI)

Discount Usability Engineering (DUE)

Framework: Discovery, Design and Evaluation (DDE)

1 Interaction Design Process

3

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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Interaction Design Process: Iterative Design

  • Interaction design is an iterative process

  • The knowledge path is constantly moving forward

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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Interaction Design Process: User Centered Design

  • User Centered Design (UCD) was pioneered by Donald Norman’s research laboratory at the University of California at San Diego

  • The objective of UCD is to develop a design framework that enables interaction designers to build more usable systems

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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Interaction Design Process: User Centered Design

  • Design should emerge from the user’s

    • goals

    • tasks

    • environment

  • Focuses on human-centric issues

    • cognition

    • perception

    • physical attributes and conditions

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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Interaction Design Process: User Centered Design

  • Who are the users? (not as obvious as we might think):

    • Those who interact directly with the product

    • Those who manage direct users

    • Those who provide input or receive output from the product

    • Those who make the purchasing decision

    • Those who use competitors’ products

  • Four types of stakeholders:

    • Primary: use the design directly

    • Secondary: either supply input or receive output from the design

    • Facilitators: develop or maintain the design

    • Indirect: affected by the use of design, but have no direct contact with it

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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Interaction Design Process: User Centered Design

  • The main tenants of user-centered design:

    • Early focus on users and tasks: directly study cognitive, behavioral, anthropomorphic, and attitudinal characteristics

    • Continuous evaluations to determine ease of learning and ease of use: observe, record and analyze the users’ reactions and performance to scenarios, manuals, simulations, and prototypes

    • Iterative design: when problems are found in user testing, fix them and carry out more tests

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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Interaction Design Process: User Centered Design

  • UCD projects generally involve the following methods:

    • User participation (Chapter 4)

    • Focus groups (Chapter 4)

    • Questionnaires (Chapter 4)

    • Ethnographicobservations (Chapter 4)

    • Walkthroughs (Chapter 5)

    • Expert evaluations (Chapter 5)

    • Usability testing (Chapter 8)

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Interaction Design Process: Models

  • Many design models exist, with various mixtures of software engineering (SE) and HCI techniques [Rogers et al, 2007] [Heim 2007]

    • Waterfall model (basic Software Engineering model)

    • Spiral model

    • Basic HCI model

    • Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)

    • Prototype-based models

    • Discount Usability Engineering (DUE) method

    • Contextual inquiry

  • We discuss next the basic SE (waterfall), the basic HCI model, and DUE

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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Interaction Design Process: Waterfall Model

  • Traditional SE model (waterfall)

  • Emphasis is on systematic, step-wise development

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Interaction Design Process: Waterfall Model

  • The waterfall model is the classical, linear, sequential engineering development model

  • It has clear cut phases, each of which must be completed before the next phase can begin

  • Introduced by Winston Royce in 1970 based on his experience with developing software for “spacecraft mission planning, commanding and post-flight analysis”

  • Waterfall assumes that requirements are fixed

  • Not a user-centered model

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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Interaction Design Process: Waterfall Model

  • Advantages of the waterfall model:

    • Highly disciplined process of documentation

    • Easily observable development progress

    • Easy to create budget

    • Consistent review process

  • Disadvantages of the waterfall model:

    • Document centric; can be difficult for the customer to understand the process

    • Specialized development teams may wait on each other

    • Rigid, rather slow, doesn’t cope well with changing requirements

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Interaction Design Process: Basic HCI Model

  • Typical HCI model [Rogers et al, 2007]. Note that emphasis is on iteration, evaluation, and alternative versions.

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Interaction Design Process: DUE Model

  • Nielsen (1994) argued that the benefits derived from even small amounts of user testing would have a significant impact on the usability of the design

  • He proposed Discount Usability Engineering (DUE), which is based on the following three techniques:

    • Scenarios

    • Thinking aloud

    • Heuristic evaluation

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Interaction Design Process: DUE Model

  • Nielsen suggested that the number of problems P that could be identified from a usability test with n users can be calculated according to the following equation:

P = N [1-(1-L)n]

where:

N = total number of usability problems in a design

L = proportion of usability problems discovered with a single participant

n = number of users

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Interaction Design Process: DDE Framework

  • General DDE Framework [Heim 2007]

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Interaction Design Process: Discovery

  • General DDE Framework [Heim 2007] - Discovery

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Monday March 21 at 2:30 pm

Chapters required:

Chapter 1 – Interaction Paradigms

Chapter 2 – Interaction Frameworks and Styles

Chapter 3 – Interaction Design Process

Chapter 4 – Discovery

More details will be provided on Wednesday

2 Midterm exam #1

19

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Due Thursday March 10, at 8:00 pm

Need to finalize teams of two students

Contents:

Abstract

Description

Project Resources

3 Project Part 1: Concept

20

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Video Selection

  • Mobile computing

    [Mozilla Seabird] (Nathan)

  • Direct manipulation

    [Future user interface][Library carousel]

  • Virtual reality / 3D Environments

    [CAVE 1993] [Museum 1] [Therapy][Museum 2] [Challenges of HCI] (Parth)

  • Zoomable interfaces

    [Raskin] [Pad++] [NUI] [Google spreadsheets]

  • Natural language interaction

    [Siri] [Articulate]

CS 320 February 28, 2011


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