Accounting
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Accounting. Richard J. Murdock Management Certificate Program Fisher College Of Business The Ohio State University (614) 292–1720 murdock.3@osu.edu. TOPICS. Key Concepts of Accounting - Baron Coburg Accounting Fundamentals Helpful Hints Accounting Information for Decision Making.

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Accounting

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Accounting

Richard J. Murdock

Management Certificate ProgramFisher College Of Business

The Ohio State University

(614) 292–1720

murdock.3@osu.edu


TOPICS

  • Key Concepts of Accounting - Baron Coburg

  • Accounting Fundamentals

  • Helpful Hints

  • Accounting Information for Decision Making


Baron Coburg

  • Measurement

  • Allocations

  • Disclosure

  • Statements


Accounting Fundamentals

  • Debits

  • Credits

  • Assets = Liabilities + Equity

  • Balance sheet classifications

    • Current assets (will be used up in a year or one operating cycle)

    • Long-lived assets (will last longer than a year)


Accounting Fundamentals

  • Current liabilities (must be paid within a year)

  • Long-term liabilities (not due within a year)

  • Equity (residual claims of the owner: assets – liabilities)

  • Revenues - amounts earned in operations

  • Expenses - costs incurred to earn revenues


  • Helpful Hints

    • Cash Management

      • Get cash owed to you as soon as possible

        • How do you get customers/clients to pay promptly?

      • Pay out cash owed at the last possible moment


    Helpful Hints

    • You just received an invoice from one of your suppliers, Rand Company. The invoice contains the following payment terms, 2/15, n/30.

    • When should you pay?

    • What is the implicit annual rate of interest?


    Helpful Hints

    • Balance sheet (Assets = Liabilities + Equity) is a picture at a point in time.

    • Ratio analysis is often used on balance sheets to assess a company’s financial health.


    Helpful Hints

    Balance sheet (Assets = Liabilities + Equity) is a picture at a point in time.

    Income statement (Revenues – expenses) deals with a period of time.

    Ratio analysis is often used on financial statements to assess a company’s financial health and operating effectiveness.


    Fundamental Analysis - Leverage


    Fundamental Analysis - Profitability


    Fundamental Analysis - Efficiency


    DuPont Model


    DuPont Model


    Fundamental Analysis

    McGraw-Hill


    Selected Ratios


    Selected Ratios

    • Dun & Bradstreet

      • Dun's financial profiles

    • Risk Management Association (formerly Robert Morris Associates – RMA)

      • RMA annual statement studies


    Fundamental Analysis - Liquidity

    Liquidity - the company’s ability to pay its liabilities as they become due in the next operating cycle

    Working Capital = Current assets – Current liabilities


    Fundamental Analysis - Liquidity


    Helpful Hints

    • Gerbill Company


    Accounting & Decisions

    • Cash flows are the lifeblood of any company

    • Inadequate cash flows lead to bankruptcy

    • The choice of projects is of paramount importance.

    • Variability and timing of cash flows may be more important than the amount.


    Accounting & Decisions

    • Offer document


    Accounting & Decisions

    • Cost terms

      • Direct cost – cost that can be traced to an individual job or product

      • Indirect cost – cost that is not traceable to a job or product

      • Fixed cost – cost that does not change in total as volume changes


    Accounting & Decisions

    • Cost terms

      • Variable cost - cost that in total changes as volume changes

      • Relevant cost – cost that is helpful in understanding or making a decision.


    Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP)

    • To achieve a profit, you must sell enough merchandise to cover all costs variable and fixed.

    • The excess of selling price for a unit (USP) over the variable cost attributable to the unit (UVC) is the unit’s contribution towards covering total fixed costs (TFC) and profit.


    Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP)

    • Unit Contribution = USP – UVC

    • A project’s breakeven volume (BE) is the sales volume necessary to cover all fixed costs.

    • BE = TFC/Unit Contribution


    Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP)

    • The volume necessary to achieve a certain dollar amount of profit ($P) can be determined in a similar manner

    • (TFC + $P)/Unit Contribution


    Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP)

    • Ice Cream Cone


    Accounting & Decisions

    • Most smaller companies and many larger companies have too many underutilized assets.

    • Ownership is smart if utilization is high.

    • Leasing is an excellent alternative for many companies.

    • Lease vs. purchase


    Conclusions

    • In Germany, everything is prohibited except what is permitted. In France, everything is permitted except what is prohibited. In Italy, everything is permitted especially what is prohibited. In Russia, everything is prohibited including what is permitted.

    • What does this say about the U.S.?


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