Chapter 11 Crimes against Property

Chapter 11 Crimes against Property PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Persistent and Professional Thieves. Professional criminal:A criminal offender who makes a living from criminal pursuits, is recognized by other offenders as a professional, and engages in offending that is planned and calculatedPersistent thief:One who continues in common-law property crimes despite no better than an ordinary level of success.

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Chapter 11 Crimes against Property

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1. Chapter 11 Crimes against Property Frank Schmalleger PowerPoint presentation created by Ellen G. Cohn, Ph.D.

2. Persistent and Professional Thieves Professional criminal: A criminal offender who makes a living from criminal pursuits, is recognized by other offenders as a professional, and engages in offending that is planned and calculated Persistent thief: One who continues in common-law property crimes despite no better than an ordinary level of success

3. Persistent and Professional Thieves Offense specialization: A preference for engaging in a certain type of offense to the exclusion of others Cafeteria-style offending: The heterogeneous and unplanned nature of offending among gang members Occasional offender: A criminal offender whose offending patterns are guided primarily by opportunity

4. Criminal Careers of Property Offenders Criminal career: Criminal behavior as an integrated, dynamic structure of sequential unlawful acts that advances within a wider context of causal and correlative influences (biological, psychological, informal social, formal criminal justice origins, etc.) Involves a rational progression through defined stages

5. Criminal Careers of Property Offenders Phases of the criminal career of property offenders: Break-in period Stable period Burnout phase

6. Property Offenders and Rational Choice Rationality: Activities identified by their impersonal, methodological, efficient, and logical components Burglars employ a “limited, temporal rationality” Partial and limited, not total

7. Larceny-Theft UCR definition: The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession, or constructive possession, of another Does not involve force or other means of illegal entry Generally less frightening than burglar A crime of opportunity

8. Prevalence and Profile of Larceny-Theft Most frequently-occurring property offense Theft from motor vehicles is largest category Pocket picking and purse snatching fairly rare Thefts from large structures (buildings) generate greater losses than petty-level personal thefts Over 1/3rd of all losses are under $50

9. Theft on College Campuses Larceny is the most frequent crime on college campuses University staff at highest risk, followed by faculty Students have lowest rates of theft victimization Campus design is a major determinant of differences in theft rates

10. Motor Vehicle Theft UCR definition: The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle Automobiles are the most commonly-stolen type of vehicle Given special focus by UCR: Frequency of crime Cultural association of automobiles with status

11. Prevalence and Profile of Motor Vehicle Theft Largest percentage of vehicles stolen from parking lot or garage Significant percentage stolen at or near residence of victim Highly-reported crime, especially completed thefts

12. Prevalence and Profile of Motor Vehicle Theft Reasons for motor vehicle theft Joyriding Temporary transportation needs Use in a crime Stripping

13. Theft of Car Parts Motivations Car parts may be worth a lot Can be sold easily Harder to identify than entire cars External vehicle parts most frequently stolen items

14. Joyriders: Car Theft for Fun Committed by groups of teens for fun Expressive act with little or no extrinsic value Most vehicles stolen by joyriders are recovered Usually abandoned Often after having been crashed

15. Jockeys: Car Theft for Profit Jockey: A professional car thief involved regularly in calculated, steal-to-order car theft The most serious and costly form of auto theft Less common than thefts for other uses Planning and calculation involved in target selection Lowest auto recovery rates

16. Shoplifting and Employee Theft Employee theft causes more loss to retailers than shoplifting Efforts to combat shoplifting might impact sales Technology is one of the best ways to address both types of theft

17. Shoplifting Who shoplifts? Juveniles are overrepresented Occurs across all social classes but appears to be more common in lower-income groups Not committed primarily by women Appears to be one of several forms of deviant behavior during adolescence May be a gateway offense to more serious and chronic types of offending

18. Meaningful Typologies for Shoplifting Mary Owen Cameron Boosters Snitches Richard H. Moore Impulsive shoplifters Occasional shoplifters Episodic shoplifters Amateur shoplifters Semiprofessional shoplifters

19. Meaningful Typologies for Shoplifting Frank McShane and Barrie A. Noonan Rebels Reactionaries Enigmas Infirm

20. Burglary UCR definition: Unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft Residential burglaries do not involve direct confrontation between victim and offender but can cause fear with lasting effects Commercial burglaries can affect the continued viability of the business

21. The Social Ecology of Burglary Routine activities theory Motivated offender Suitable target Absence of capable guardians Burglary is affected by Changes in technology Changes in production and distribution of services and goods Changes in population structure

22. Types of Burglars Neil Shover Low-level burglars Middle-range burglars High-level burglars

23. Burglary Locales Nighttime residential and daytime commercial burglary are considered the most serious Burglary is a “cold crime” Little physical evidence to link the offender to the crime The burglar is gone before the victims realize they have been burglarized and call the police

24. The Motivation of Burglars The most prevalent rationale is the need for fast cash Selection of burglary as the “crime of choice” Burglary is familiar, the “main line” It is less risky than other offenses The offender may not own the necessary equipment for robbery

25. Target Selection Commercial burglaries Suitability Retail establishments preferred Merchandise is exposed Merchandise is new and has a high resale value Offender does not need to spend intrusion time searching for the “loot”

26. Target Selection Residential burglaries Key factors in target selection Knowledge of occupants Receive tip Observe potential target Other factors influencing target selection Signs of occupancy Security devices Dogs Accessible area

27. Costs of Burglary Economic loss very common in burglary Property/money stolen Time lost from work Property crimes have a greater effect on the decision to move than violent crimes

28. The Burglary-Drug Connection Increased demand for crack cocaine in the 1980s affected crime rates Burglary rates decreased Robbery rates increased Crack trade created preference for cash-intensive crimes (robbery) over burglary Shift in crimes consistent with view that property offenders tend to be generalists

29. The Sexualized Context of Burglary Burglaries with “hidden sexual forces lying at their root” (rather than economic gain) Fetishes Voyeuristic burglaries Can be explained from the perspective of opportunity theory Home-intrusion rape

30. Stolen Property Basic elements: Buying and receiving Stolen property Knowing it to be stolen Fence Least common method of disposing of stolen goods for majority of thieves Most common method used by professional burglars

31. The Role of Criminal Receivers Cromwell’s typology Professional receiver Avocational receiver Amateur receiver

32. Arson UCR definition The willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, of a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, or personal property of another Motives vary from profit to thrill seeking Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996

33. Fire Setters The majority of those involved in arson are juveniles General groups of juvenile fire setters Children under 7 Start fires accidentally or out of curiosity Children between 8-12 Fire setting represents underlying psychosocial conflict Children between 13-18 Have history of fire setting, usually undetected

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