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Solent Boat Training. Powerboat Level 2. Earth. Sun. TIDES. Springs. New Moon . Earth. Sun. Full Moon. Springs. TIDES. Last Quarter. Neaps. Earth. Sun. Neaps. First Quarter. TIDES. RULE OF TWELFTHS. 1st hour 1/12. 2nd hour 2/12. 3rd hour 3/12. 4th hour 3/12.

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solent boat training

Solent Boat Training

Powerboat Level 2

slide2

Earth

Sun

TIDES

slide3

Springs

New

Moon

Earth

Sun

Full

Moon

Springs

TIDES

slide4

Last Quarter

Neaps

Earth

Sun

Neaps

First Quarter

TIDES

slide5

RULE OF TWELFTHS

1st hour 1/12

2nd hour 2/12

3rd hour 3/12

4th hour 3/12

5th hour 2/12

6th hour 1/12

HW +1h +2h +3h +4h +5h LW

slide7

Hot Air

Rising

Cold Air

Falling

Cold Air

Falling

Cold Air

Cold Air

FUNDAMENTAL CAUSE OF \'WEATHER\'

slide8

Returned air falls

to cool sea

Warm air rising

off land creates LOW PRESSURE

Cool Sea

HIGH PRESSURE

SEA BREEZE - EARLY

slide9

Returned air falls

to cool sea

Clouds form as damp air off sea rises and condenses

Warm air rising

off land

Damp air

Cool Sea

SEA BREEZE - ESTABLISHED

slide10

Cool air descends

as land cools quickly

Air off warm sea

surface rises

Breeze blows from

land to sea

Land Cools

LAND BREEZE

slide11

992

1000

1024

1008

1016

1032

High

Pressure

Low

Pressure

Buys Ballot\'s Law

In the Northern Hemisphere,

if you stand with your back

to the wind, the

LOWPRESSURE

area is to your left

High

Low

BUYS BALLOT\'S LAW

slide12

FRONTAL SYSTEM

General Direction

of Depression

L

A

C

B

D

E

Warm Front

F

Cold Front

slide13

FRONTAL SYSTEM

Cirrus

Cirro Stratus

Alto Stratus

Cumulonimbus

Stratus

Cumulus

Nimbo

Stratus

Strato Cumulus

Cumulus

Fog

Rain

WARM

AIR

Heavy Rain Showers

COLD AIR

COOL AIR

A

F

E

D

C

B

slide14

WEATHER FORECAST SOURCES

  • National Radio
  • Local Radio
  • TV
  • Marine Call
  • Internet
  • Teletext
  • Met Office
  • Navtex
  • Weatherfax/Fax
  • Coastguard
  • Press
  • Coast Radio Station
  • Look
slide15

PILOTAGE

(Navigating Safely in Confined Waters)

  • USE ALL SIGNPOSTS AVAILABLE
    • Buoys & lights
    • Charted landmarks
    • Transits, clearing bearings
    • Soundings etc.
  • PRE-PLAN
    • Use large scale charts
    • Pilot books
    • Local knowledge
    • As detailed as necessary for the task
slide16

DETAIL NEEDED

Start of pilotage

Distance and Course to Steer to next mark

Use 6 minute marks for high speed navigation

Repeat until destination reached

Use transits and clearing bearings to

avoid hazards

PILOTAGE

slide17

KEEP TO PORT OR STARBOARD

Starboard Hand

Any G except (2 + 1)

Port Hand

Any R except (2 + 1)

Direction

of

Buoyage

Safe Water

Iso, Occ,

L Fl 10s or Mo(A)

Special Marks

Yellow, any rhythmexcept used for

white lights

MARKS CAN BE BUOYS OR ON POSTS

COLOUR DEFINES PURPOSE

LATERAL AND OTHER BUOYAGE

slide18

KEEP TO PORT OR STARBOARD

Port Hand

Any R except (2 + 1)

Starboard Hand

Any G except (2 + 1)

MARKS CAN BE BUOYS OR ON POSTS

COLOUR DEFINES PURPOSE

Direction

of

Buoyage

Safe Water

Iso, Occ,

L Fl 10s or Mo(A)

Special Marks

Yellow, rhythm not

used for white lights

Preferred Channel

to Stbd Fl (2 + 1)R

Preferred Channel

to Port Fl (2 + 1)G

LATERAL AND OTHER BUOYAGE

slide19

Continuous

Flashing

Shows direction of safe water

2 Flashes

9 Flashes

3 Flashes

6 Short + 1 Long

CARDINAL MARKS

slide20

PASSAGE PLANNING

  • Define objective
  • Constraints on operation
    • Crew, time available etc
  • Assemble navigation equipment
  • Charts, Pilots, Tide Tables and
  • Tidal Stream Atlases
  • Plan provisions (including emergency stock)
  • Personal kit
slide21

PASSAGE PLANNING

  • Constraints on departure - locks, sills?
    • If so - departure time is set within these limits -
    • PlanFORWARD
  • Constraints on arrival - locks, sills?
    • If so - arrival time is set between these limits -
    • PlanBACKWARDS
  • Passage constraints - races, strong tides?
    • If so - transit time is set by the phenomenon
  • If more than one constraint
    • Plan waiting period when appropriate
slide22

PASSAGE PLANNING

  • Calculate distance and expected passage time
  • Calculate times between waypoints for high
  • speed navigation
  • Plan for departure/arrival by day/night
  • Plan for optimum use of tide
  • Plan waypoints
  • Is fuel capacity adequate for passage?
    • If not, plan refuelling stops
slide23

N

W

E

S

N

N

W

E

W

E

S

S

N

W

E

S

EFFECT OF COMPASS DEVIATION

slide24

Ship\'s Head

Ship\'s Head

Deviation

West

East

Magnetic (M)

Compass (C)

6

4

2

0

2

4

6

000

4W

356

000

2W

020.5

022.5

0

045

045

045

2E

069.5

067.5

4E

094

090

090

5E

117.5

112.5

6E

141

135

135

5E

162.5

157.5

4E

184

180

180

2E

204.5

202.5

0

225

225

225

2W

245.5

247.5

4W

266

270

270

5W

287.5

292.5

6W

309

315

315

5W

332.5

337.5

4W

356

360

360

COMPASS DEVIATION TABLE

slide25

“Error West - Compass Best

Error East - Compass Least”

“Cadbury\'s Dairy Milk Very Tasty + Exciting (- W)”

NB Order and sign of corrections are important

MNEMONICS

slide28

PORT ENTRY - CROSS TIDE

Course to be made good

Tide

When close enough to see, transfer to more

appropriate transit until out of tide

COURSE SHAPING

slide29

Fore

Spring

Back

Spring

BowRopes

Stern Rope

Bow

Shoreline

Stern

Shoreline

Fore spring stops the boat going forwards

Back spring stops the boat going backwards

MOORING ALONGSIDE

slide31

KNOTS, BENDS & HITCHES

Sheet Bend

Double

SheetBend

Bowline

Figureof Eight

slide32

Clove Hitch

Reef Knot

Rolling

Hitch

Round Turn and

2 Half Hitches

KNOTS, BENDS & HITCHES

slide34

ANCHOR TERMINOLOGY

Eye

for tripping line

Fid

Shank

(to secure stock)

Stock

Fluke

Crown

Shank

slide35

Poor power/weight ratio

  • Upstanding fluke can foul chain
  • Stock pin needs wire mousing
  • Can stow flat
  • Good on rock
  • Few moving parts

Grapnel

  • Easily folded
  • Best in weed
  • Useful in small
  • craft
  • Poor power/weight ratio
  • Clumsy to handle
  • Can pinch fingers

Fisherman

slide36

CQR

  • Good power/weight ratio
  • Plough digs into most types of ground
  • Forged steel very strong
  • Difficult to stow
  • Can capsize (but usually resets)

Danforth

  • Shingle can jam or trip
  • Not good on rock
  • Hard to break out of mud
  • Can catch fingers
  • Can stow flat
  • Good holding in soft ground
slide37

Bruce

  • Excellent power/weight ratio
  • No moving parts to jam
  • Easy to break out
  • Difficult to stow except on bow roller
  • Not good on weedy or hard ground
  • Smaller sizes may not dig in easily

Delta

  • Sets fast and digs deep
  • Excellent power/weight ratio
  • Does not capsize
  • Can self-launch/free-fall from bow roller
  • Difficult to stow except on bow roller
slide38

ANCHORING

Anchors in tandem

Running Moor

Strongest stream

Heaviest anchor

Scope

Chain - 4 x depth

Warp - 6 x depth

40°

slide39

Be clear of

    • Fairways
    • Dangers
    • Other anchored craft
  • Depth
    • Now
    • LW
    • HW
  • Shelter
    • Now
    • Later
  • Tidal Stream
    • Direction
    • Speed
    • Turn
  • Wind
    • Direction
    • Speed
  • Can you get away?
    • In a crisis
    • At night
  • Type of Holding

ANCHORING

slide41

GPS - FIX ERROR

Position Spheres

slide42

GPS - POTENTIAL LIMITATIONS

  • Selective Availability
    • Random error is built into civilian signal
    • 95% of fixes within 100m
    • Can be corrected with Differential GPS
  • Similar errors to visual fix when intersection
  • much less than 60 degrees
  • Shape of earth - need to use correct datum or
  • can be as much as 150 metres in error
slide43

DISTRESS CALL MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY,

This is Yacht FAIRWIND, FAIRWIND,FAIRWIND

  • DISTRESS MESSAGE
  • IdentityMAYDAY Yacht FAIRWIND
  • PositionPosition is 025°(T) from Braye Harbour, 7 miles
  • Situation Struck submerged object, holed and sinking
  • Assistance Needed I require immediate assistance
  • Crew Six persons on board all with lifejackets
  • Other Information Preparing liferaft and will abandon in 10 minutes
  • Invitation to reply Over

VHF MAYDAY

slide44

Fire downwind

15° for no cloud

WIND

WIND

WIND

Up to 45° for

low cloud

DISTRESS FLARES

COASTAL

7 miles from land

INSHORE

5 miles from land

  • OFFSHORE
    • Over 7 miles from land

2 red hand flares

2 orange smokes

4 red parachute flares

4 red hand flares

2 buoyant orange smokes

2 parachute flares

2 red hand flares

2 orange smokes

  • Visibility : Red hand held 7 miles on a clear night
  • Parachute 28 miles on a clear night
  • Orange smoke 3 miles in daylight
slide45

HELICOPTER RESCUE

  • Communicate on VHF
  • Pilot will give exact course under sail or power (Usually wind on port bow)
  • Brief crew early as too noisy later
  • Weighted Hi-Line lowered
  • Earth in sea or on boat before
  • handling DO NOT MAKE FAST
  • Pull as directed - stow loosely in bucket
  • Let diver touch boat before you
  • touch him

Winch

wire

Beware of

down draught

Hi-line

Diver

DO AS YOU ARE TOLD

slide46

SAFETY HARNESSES & LIFEJACKETS

  • WEAR SAFETY HARNESS
  • If the boat is reefed or would be if hard
  • on the wind
  • If sighting & recovery of YOUR BODY
  • would be difficult - at night, in fog etc.
  • If about to abandon the vessel

Harness lanyard clipped to jackstay allows crew to go forward while secured

Harness lanyard

clipped to strongpoint

in cockpit

  • WEAR A LIFEJACKET
  • For dinghy journeys, especially at night
  • In fog (due to risk of collision)
  • If about to abandon the vessel
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