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Strategic Planning for Adaptive Optics at Keck. Claire Max and Mike Liu on behalf of Keck AO Working Group Antonin Bouchez (Caltech), Rich Dekany (Caltech), David Koo (UCSC), Bruce Macintosh (LLNL), Franck Marchis (UCB), Keith Matthews (Caltech). Outline. Role of AO Working Group

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Strategic planning for adaptive optics at keck

Strategic Planning for Adaptive Optics at Keck

Claire Max and Mike Liu

on behalf of Keck AO Working Group

Antonin Bouchez (Caltech), Rich Dekany (Caltech), David Koo (UCSC), Bruce Macintosh (LLNL), Franck Marchis (UCB), Keith Matthews (Caltech)


Outline
Outline

  • Role of AO Working Group

  • Near-term Keck AO

  • Strategic planning:

    • Previous strategic plans

    • What should next-generation AO system look like:

      • High Strehl over narrow field?

      • Moderate Strehl over wider field?

      • Other?

We need your feedback!

We need your help to compare science cases for future AO options!


Ao working group
AO Working Group

  • Second-generation AO Working Group

  • Co-chairs: Mike Liu (UH) and Claire Max (UCSC)

  • Members: Antonin Bouchez (Caltech), Rich Dekany (Caltech), David Koo (UCSC), Bruce Macintosh (LLNL), Franck Marchis (UCB), Keith Matthews (Caltech)

  • Charter: "To assist in prioritization and advocate the optimization of the scientific output of the Keck adaptive optics facilities, in conjunction with the adaptive optics science instruments."


Near term keck ao
Near-term Keck AO

  • Current Status:

    • Keck II laser guide star now doing shared-risk science

    • Working VERY well (5 science papers from past semester, many more coming)

  • Near-term upgrades:

    • Wavefront controller upgrade (KI and KII)

    • Procurement of laser for KI under way

  • 77 Keck AO papers to date (!) including 5 laser guide star papers in the past 6 months


5 LGS

54%

30%

16%


Previous strategic plan

We need your advice

X

Previous strategic plan

  • Complete

  • In progress

  • Went to Gemini

  • 77 Keck AO papers to date (!) including 5 laser guide star papers in the past 6 months


Ha

K

J

H

X

X Keck NGS today

X

X


Wider field mcao graph from gemini s
Wider field MCAO (graph from Gemini S)

MCAO

  • Strehl and PSF approx. uniform over ~ 1.5 arc min diameter field

Conventional AO


Should we continue to pursue kpao or should we head to wider field ao

KPAO advantage

MCAO advantage

Should we continue to pursue KPAO, or should we head to wider field AO?

  • Comparison of KPAO with Gemini MCAO

    K band J band 8000A H

    KPAO Strehl 90% 65% 40% 22% MCAO Strehl 60% 20% 2% very low


Planetary science kpao is the most promising technology
Planetary Science: KPAO is the most promising technology

Jovian moons, asteroids, trans-neptunian objects are small enough to fit into KPAO’s field of view

KPAO in visible has high potential for asteroids, TNO’s

  • Volcanism: variable phenomenon

  • Io

  • Triton

  • Enceladus

-> find smaller fragments around asteroids and TNO’s (multiple systems)

-> Bulk-Density and formation scenario

South pole clouds

Surface at 2 m

87 Sylvia and its two moonlets

Keck

Keck

Cryo-volcanoes?


Kpao in visible has high potential for asteroids tno s
KPAO in visible has high potential for asteroids, TNO’s

  • Better angular resolution, sensitivity(?), spectral capabilities

  • PSF quality and stability + sensitivity must be quantified

  • Better angular resolution

  • Better sensitivity?

  • -> find smaller fragments around asteroids and TNO’s (multiple systems)

  • -> Bulk-Density and formation scenario

87 Sylvia and its two moonlets(Marchis et al. 2005)


What is the diversity of planetary systems imaging of dusty circumstellar disks

KPAO can fulfill needs of most Galactic Astronomy programs

What is the diversity of planetary systems?Imaging of dusty circumstellar disks

  • Disk sub-structure tells about the planet formation process.

  • Low-mass planets too faint to directly image can be studied by the dynamical signatures they produce in the dust.

  • Multi-wavelength optical + IR colors tell us about grain growth.

  • KPAO AO @ I-band: resolution ~0.01” (0.1-0.5 AU scales).


Kpao imaging of planets around low mass stars and brown dwarfs
KPAO: Imaging of planets around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

  • KPAO can detect 1 MJ companion to 40 MJ/10 Gyr brown dwarf

  • Can detect 1 MJ companion to T Tauri star @ 50 AU

  • These targets are inaccessible to bright-star ExAO systems



Extragalactic astronomy requires large samples some preference for wide field of view ao
Extragalactic astronomy requires large samples: some preference for wide field of view AO

  • Color-magnitude diagrams of stars out to Virgo

    • Best with KPAO (higher Strehl for confusion limited imaging)

  • Wide field AO preferred for

    • Evolution of bulges, disks, bars, AGNs, starbursts at high z

    • Multi-IFU spectroscopy and high resolution imaging are possible (in principle) with both MCAO and MOAO

  • We will understand galaxy evolution by using large samples of galaxies at high z

  • Tradeoff between sensitivity (Strehl) and sample size


NGS AO preference for wide field of view AO

LGS AO

MCAO AO

z=1 Galaxy

HII region

Super

Nova?

Bulge

Spiral Arm

(1)

(2)

(3)

GOODS-N

1%

GOODS-N

15%

GOODS-N

35%

MOAO AO

Metallicity

Gradients

(4)

Velocity

Kinematics

Star

Formation

Rates

(5)

0.5”

(6)

-

Note: Sauron Data from local galaxies, de Zeeuw et al. 2002


Synergy between kpao and wide field ao options
Synergy between KPAO and wide field AO options preference for wide field of view AO

KPAO will measure turbulence using multiple laser guide stars and tomography

KPAO

narrow FOV

High Strehl

Wide field AO will use these meas’ts to correct atmosphere

Multi-Object AO

Many small fields of view within larger field of regard,

moderate Strehl

Multi-Conjugate AO

2’ FOV

Moderate Strehl


Key issue need to compare the science cases for kpao wide field ao
Key Issue: Need to compare the science cases for KPAO, wide field AO

  • AOWG has put together a few example science cases

  • Gemini MCAO Science Case is much more extensive

  • We need your help in fleshing out a science-case comparison between KPAO and wide-field AO


External environment considerations
External environment considerations field AO

  • HST is possibly/probably going to die in 3-5 years

    • After that, Keck AO would be the best/only high resolution system available.

  • In the optical, Keck could deliver 4x the resolution as HST

    • For high-resolution science in local universe (e.g.resolved stellar population studies of nearby galaxies), 64x the effective volume would be available, so a much larger sample of objects can be studied.

  • Laser technology is making significant strides

    • Lasers for Gemini MCAO are being built today

    • Lasers for optical AO are no longer a pipe dream

  • TMT is a long way in the future

    • There is ample time for at least one next-generation Keck AO system (and likely more).

  • For planetary science, next-generation Keck AO will happen a lot sooner than any new space missions (except Moon-Mars!)


We need your input
We need your input! field AO

  • What capabilities would you need from a next-generation Keck AO system for your own science?

    • NOW is the time to begin planning this

    • Are you most excited about a high Strehl, modest FOV AO system with optical (red) wavelength capability?

    • Would a larger field of view with lower Strehl but only IR wavelength coverage be of most interest to you?

  • HST users: what does HST provide for you that Keck AO doesn’t (aside from funding)?

  • Please help us work on comparing science cases!

    • Form a mini-working group

    • CfAO and Keck could co-sponsor a workshop

    • Science closely tied with AO and instrument capabilities


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