Ch 8 categories and concepts
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Ch. 8: Categories and concepts. Concept and Knowledge. Topic: How do we store and manipulate a concept in the brain?. Concepts, beliefs and behavior. Concept/belief and action. Mother Teresa Timothy McVeigh (Oklahoma bomber) Ted Kaczynski (the unabomber) Osama bin Laden Mahatma Gandhi

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Ch. 8: Categories and concepts

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Ch 8 categories and concepts

Ch. 8: Categories and concepts


Concept and knowledge

Concept and Knowledge

  • Topic:

    • How do we store and manipulate a concept in the brain?


Concepts beliefs and behavior

Concepts, beliefs and behavior


Concept belief and action

Concept/belief and action

  • Mother Teresa

  • Timothy McVeigh (Oklahoma bomber)

  • Ted Kaczynski (the unabomber)

  • Osama bin Laden

  • Mahatma Gandhi

  • Nelson Mandela

  • George Washington

  • 74 men and women died in Waco, TX

  • Bill Clinton


Psychiatric disorders

Psychiatric disorders

  • Anxiety disorder

    • Is created by an lingering belief on something threatening happens

  • Maniac depression

    • Disbelief on one’s ability, fate, etc.


Ch 8 categories and concepts

Political language:

  • Compassionate conservative

    • support the rich but also, supposedly, generous to the poor.

  • Limousine liberal

    • extremely rich but appreciate liberal ideas.

  • War president

    • A president who deals with war.

  • Death tax

    • Inheritance tax

  • Pro-life

    • a political position against abortion

  • Pro-choice

    • a political position that supports abortion

  • Insurance premium

    • Insurance fee

  • Tax cuts

    • cutting taxes of one group and raising taxes for others


  • Stereotype

    Stereotype

    • Ethnic conflicts


    Concept and memory

    Concept and memory?

    • Are they two different things?


    What is the structure of concept

    What is the structure of “concept”?

    This is the today’s topic.


    Demonstration

    Demonstration:

    • Tell me what you see as accurately as possible.


    Why do you say hammer

    Why do you say “hammer”?

    • Why not “hand tool”?

    • Or why not the $15 hammer I bought in Wal Mart last Wednesday?

    • Why not “animal”?

    • Or why not “vegetable”?


    What is concept

    What is “concept”?

    • I don’t know

      • But maybe concept we have is related to the way we categorize things


    Concept categories

    Concept --> categories

    • In order to study “concept”, I’ll talk about “categories” .


    There are trillions of categories

    There are trillions of categories.

    • Animals, dogs, cats, birds, mammals, furniture, desks, chairs, tables, books, magazines…..

    • Trees, grass, weed, stones, rocks, sand, mountains, rivers,…..

    • Games, sports, hobbies, …

    • school, banks, shops, restaurants, supermarkets,


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    • Nazi!! Fascists!! Terrorists, racists, sexists, pacifists, philanthropists, sophists, aristocrats, workers, bankers, lawyers, accountants, teachers, students, disciples, masters, gurus, beggars, bigots,

    • Party animals, beasts!!, dogs!!,

    • CEO, CFO, CIO, UFO, evp, vip,

    • IC (Indian Chief)


    Ad hoc categories

    Ad hoc categories

    • People I adore, People I admire, People I hang around, People I need, People I avoid.

    • Things I love, Things I enjoy, Places I love, Food I hate, music I like, movies I enjoy

    • countries I want to visit, restaurants I avoid


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    • Circles, triangles, squares, dots, lines, rectangles, plane,

    • 1, 2, 3, 4, 100, 120,

    • A, B, C, D,…..


    The format of representing a category

    The format of representing a category


    When we say dog what s going on in our mind

    When we say “dog,” what’s going on in our mind?

    • What is the mental representation of “categories”?

    • How do we distinguish in our mind

      • a dog from a cat?

      • a circle from a triangle?

    • What’s going on?

      • What is the structure?

      • What is the neural connections?


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    Which woman looks more attractive/friendly/pleasant/capable?


    Concepts

    Concepts

    • What determines “dog” vs. “cat” or “table” vs. “vegetable”, “game” vs. “sport”,…..


    Classical view

    Classical view

    • Necessary & sufficient rule

      • we store definitions.

    • Circle --> an area circumscribed by an equidistant curve.

    • Triangles --> an area circumscribed by three straight lines having three angles………..

    A circle of friends, Dupon circle, Columbus Circle, Circle line

    Bermuda triangles, triangle defense (Chicago Bulls)


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    • Brother, sister, mother, father, uncle,

    • Some concepts may be organized with specific rules.

    • But how about other categories?

      • Game?

        • Basketball, softball, horse race, chess, a wheel of fortune, survivor, roulette, love affair, computer game, Super Mario?

      • furniture

        • desk, table, rug? Bed? Computer? TV?


    Alternative view

    Alternative view


    Concepts and categories

    Concepts and categories

    • Pink is basically red.

    • 99 is almost 100.

    • Orange is sort of yellow.

    • Austin is like Rome.

    • San Antonio is very much like Mexico.

    • Pita can be bread.


    Concepts and categories ii

    Concepts and categories II

    • Red is basically pink.

    • 100 is almost 99.

    • Yellow is almost orange.

    • Rome is like Austin.

    • Mexico is very much like San Antonio.

    • Bread can be pita.


    Birds which one looks more like bird

    Birds: which one looks more like “bird”?


    Which desk is the best example of desk

    Which desk is the best example of “desk”?


    Which game is the best example of game

    Which game is the best example of “game”?

    • Baseball

    • Chess

    • Basketball

    • Politics

    • Football

    • Golf

    • One-night love affair

    • Snowboarding

    • Checker

    • Ping-Pong

    • Slot machine

    • Poker

    • Mahjong

    • Horse racing

    • NASCAR racing


    Fruit vs vegetable

    Fruit vs. Vegetable

    • Onion

    • Carrot

    • Pepper

    • Potato

    • Jalapeno

    • Cucumber

    • Bitter Melon

    • Spinach

    • Garlic

    • Ginger

    • Broccoli

    • Plantain

    • Lettuce

    • Cabbage

    • Pumpkin

    Banana

    Apple

    Melon

    Grapes

    Lemon

    Avocado

    Orange

    Grape fruit

    Kiwi

    Papaya

    Mango

    Lime

    Tomato


    Example

    Example:

    • Fruits  banana

      • Sweet, can eat without cooking, lots of vitamin, from tropical countries, soft, ripe quickly, easy to eat, kids love it, tasty, can bring it for hiking

    • Vegetables  carrot

      • Not sweet, not tasty, require some cooking, lots of vitamin, from anywhere, hard, stay long, kids don’t like it, hard


    Probabilistic view

    Probabilistic view

    • The boundaries of categories are fuzzy (probabilistically determined).

    • Some members are more probable than others.

    • But we are pretty sure about what “dog” means.

    • How do we mentally represent categorical knowledge?


    Organization of categories

    Organization of categories

    • Members of categories are organized in relation to some focal members. (prototype)

    • Focal members play the role of a “reference point.”

    • The boundaries of categories may be fuzzy, but people know pretty well which items are “good/bad” members of a category.

      • Penguin vs. robin, chair vs. rug,


    Measuring goodness of category members

    Measuring “goodness” of category members

    • Rosch et al. (1975)

    • Experiments:

    • Subjects were given a list containing the names of category members.

    • Subjects rated (using a 1-10 scale) the goodness of membership.

      • E.g., given “pistol”, subjects rated how good a pistol is as a member of the category “weapons.”


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    • Furniture (chair, lamp, rug, dresser, desk, stove, table, stool, television, fan, bed, television, counter)

    • Fruit (apple, grapefruit, watermelon, banana, cherries, boysenberry, pear, strawberries, lemon, orange, pineapple, nut)

    • Vehicle (car, airplane, sled, bus, bicycle, wheelchair, truck, boat, tractor, ambulance, trolley, wagon).

    • Weapon (pistol, arrow, slingshot, sword, tomahawk, whip, knife, cannon, fist, rifle, club, bow)

    • Vegetable (peas, celery, mushrooms, corn, turnips, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, green onions, green beans, artichoke, pumpkin)….

    • Other categories, bird, sport, toy, clothing.


    Results

    Results:

    • Correlations: 0.95 or up (=1 is perfect correlation)

    • People agree very much which items are good/bad examples of a particular category.

    • Categories have “good” examples and “bad” examples.

    • The boundaries of categories are graded, and may be arranged probabilistically with “goodness” of membership.

  • What determine “goodness”? Or what makes a particular item a good example of a category?


  • Typicality and feature distribution

    Typicality and feature distribution

    • What makes an item a typical member of a category.

    • How do we perceive a particular item a typical member of a given category?


    Family resemblance rosch mervis 1975

    Family resemblance Rosch & Mervis (1975)

    • Distribution of attributes (features)

      • The most typical item in a category has the most features in common with other members of a category,

      • and the fewest features in common with the member of contrasting categories.

    • These items are ideal examples and may be referred to as “prototype.”


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    Which woman looks more attractive/friendly/pleasant/capable?


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    Which woman looks more attractive/friendly/pleasant/capable?


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    +

    =


    Who is he she

    12

    Who is he/she?


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    1

    4

    6

    9

    12

    15

    19

    20

    • Morphed images of two different human faces

      ( Angelina Jolie – Brad Pitt by Na Yung Yu)


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    By Na Yung Yu


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    By me


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    Just averaging the two faces


    Vertical structure of categories

    Vertical structure of categories

    • Why “dog” rather than “animal”?

    • Categories have a vertical structure.

    • Not all levels of categories are created equal.

      • One intermediate level of categories, which is called, basic level categories, plays a crucial role in our perceptual and cognitive operations


    Rosch et al 1978

    Rosch et al. (1978)

    • Basic (intermediate) level categories

      • Most efficient in identification

      • Evokes specific visual representations

      • People use this level exclusively for naming

      • Kids tend to learn these names earlier than other levels of categories


    Exp 1

    Exp. 1

    • Speed of classification

    • Shown a category name (animal -upper level, dog-intermediate level, or German shepherd low level) followed by a picture.

    • Subjects responded whether the category name matched with the picture (pressing a either yes or no key)


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    Bear

    Animal

    Polar bear


    Results1

    Results :

    Basic level items are the easiest to classify


    Basic level categories and representation

    Basic level categories and representation

    • Basic level categories evoke specific visual representations.

      • Given “furniture”, what kind of representation do you have in your mind?

      • How about “desk”?

    • Basic level category names evokes a specific pictorial representation


    Rosh et al 1978

    Rosh et al. (1978)

    • Object matching task and priming

    • Object matching task

      • Two pictures were shown on a screen briefly side by side.

      • Subjects’ task was to indicate whether or not the two pictures depicted identical objects


    2 conditions

    2 conditions

    • Primed trials

      • 2 seconds before the presentation of picture pairs, the category name of one of the pair was presented.

    • Non primed trials

      • No names were given prior to the trials.

    • Dependent measure

      • Accuracy and response time


    Procedure primed condition

    Procedure (primed condition)

    Animal / cat / Persian cat

    Depending on trials, upper (animal), basic (intermediate), or low level (Persian cat) category names appeared.

    Yes/no


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    • 15 subjects  primed with upper level names (animal)

    • 15 subjects  primed with basic level names (dog)

    • 15 subjects  low level names (German shepherd)

    • All the subjects were also given non-primed trials.


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    animal


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    mammal


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    cat


    Ch 8 categories and concepts

    kitten


    Results2

    RT for “Same”

    Priming conditions

    Superordinate

    (animal)

    Basic level name (cat)

    Subordinate (kitten)

    Primed

    620

    554

    568

    Unprimed

    592

    601

    612

    Difference

    -18

    47

    44

    Results:


    Interpretation

    Interpretation

    • Given the name of a basic level category, people form a specific pictorial representation.


    Categories concept

    Categories/Concept

    • Categories have a structure.

      • Horizontal structure

        • Distinction between dogs vs. Cats.

        • Prototype, family resemblance

          • The most typical item in a category has the most features in common with other members of a category,

          • and the fewest features in common with the member of contrasting categories.

      • Vertical structure

        • (Animal, mammal, dog, German Shepherd)

        • The mid-level categories that we used for naming are called “basic level” categories.

        • Basic level categories have cognitive and perceptual significance.


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