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CARBON AND COAL How does chestnut fit in?. Frederick L. Paillet Dept of Earth Sciences University of Maine. DO GREENHOUSE GASES REALLY MATTER?. SOLAR HEAT SOURCE FOR PLANET EARTH TEMPERATURE AND DISTANCE DETERMINES AVERAGE EARTH TEMP

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Carbon and coal how does chestnut fit in
CARBON AND COALHow does chestnut fit in?

Frederick L. Paillet

Dept of Earth Sciences

University of Maine


Do greenhouse gases really matter
DO GREENHOUSE GASES REALLY MATTER?

  • SOLAR HEAT SOURCE FOR PLANET EARTH

  • TEMPERATURE AND DISTANCE DETERMINES AVERAGE EARTH TEMP

  • EQUILIBRIUM TEMPERATURE IS ONLY -5 DEGREES F

  • APPLIES TO THE TOP OF THE ATMOSPHERE (CLOUD TOPS)

  • BLANKET OF GHG MAKES A 55 F DIFFERENCE!


Geologic carbon cycle major climate changes of the past
GEOLOGIC CARBON CYCLEMAJOR CLIMATE CHANGES OF THE PAST

  • SELF–REGULATING PROCESS

  • VOLCANOS EMIT CO2

  • WARMER MORE ACTIVE ATMOSPHERE – MORE STORMS AND RAIN

  • PACE OF EROSION INCREASES

  • MORE SEDIMENTS DEPOSITED IN SEAS

  • MORE CARBON BURIED IN SEA FLOOR

  • CYLE TAKES MILLIONS OF YEARS


But there s no real evidence
BUT THERE’S NO REAL EVIDENCE

  • WE HAVE ALL EXPERIENCED MAJOR GLOBAL WARMING – IT’S AN EVENT CALLED SUMMER

  • THE HUGE DIFFERENCE IS CAUSED BY A SMALL TILT OF THE EARTH’S AXIS

  • ICE AGES DRIVEN BY MINISCULE CHANGES IN EARTH ORBIT

    • EARTH ORBIT IS SLIGHTLY ELLIPTICAL (1-6%)

    • ICE AGE WHEN SUMMER IS AT LONG AXIS

    • INTERGLACIAL (TODAY) WHEN SUMMER AT SHORT AXIS

  • THESE SMALL CHANGES PRODUCE A MILE OF ICE OVER NEW YORK AND A DOUBLING OF FLORIDA THROUGH SEA LEVEL CHANGES


Climate change involves carbon
CLIMATE CHANGE INVOLVES CARBON

  • ICE AGE THEORY PROBLEM:

    • SOLAR CHANGE OPPOSITE IN HEMISPHERES

    • SOUTHERN GLACIERS SHOULD BE OUT OF PHASE

    • IN FACT THEY ARE IN ALMOST PERFECT PHASE

  • COLD SUMMERS IN CANADA INFLUENCE THE WHOLE WORLD

  • ARGENTINA FREEZES IN SPITE OF WARMER SUMMERS

  • A 90 PPM (<50%) CHANGE IN CO2 MADE THE DIFFERENCE


The basic facts
THE BASIC FACTS

  • CO2 WAS AT 280 PPM 150 YRS AGO

  • CO2 NOW AT 380 PPM (30% INCR)

  • PROBABLE 0.6 C (1.2 F) CHANGE NOW

  • CO2 LIKELY EXCEED 50% BY 2050

  • PAST 50% INCR ENDED ICE AGE

  • PARTICULATES MAY HAVE INITIALLY OFFSET HEATING

  • A NEW EXPERIMENT ON A VERY SENSITIVE SYSTEM

  • WE ARE SQUANDERING VALUABLE RESOURCES ALONG THE WAY


Carbon made simple
CARBON MADE SIMPLE

  • ATMOSPHERE 100 units

    • (Before 1700)

  • RESERVOIRS

    • Vegetation 70

    • Soil & litter 250

    • Fossil fuel 1000

    • Deep ocean 5000

  • EMISSIONS

    • Fossil fuel 0.75

    • Land use 0.25

  • DESTINATION

    • Atmosphere 0.40

    • Shallow ocean 0.25

    • Unknown 0.35


Wood for carbon storage
WOOD FOR CARBON STORAGE

  • TYPICAL NEW TEMPERATE FOREST STORES TON/ACRE/YEAR CARBON

  • CHESTNUT COULD INCREASE THAT BY 10-20% - FASTER GROWTH, BIGGER TREE

  • MILLIONS OF TONS FOR POWER/YR

  • MILLIONS OF ACRES OF FORMER FIELD NOW FORESTED IN EAST

  • ALBEDO AND TRANSPIRATION EFFECTS

  • TEMPERATE TREES MAKE A CONTRIBUTION BUT NOT THE ANSWER


Other side of carbon use mine reclamation
OTHER SIDE OF CARBON USE – MINE RECLAMATION

  • EASTERN COAL MINES ON PRIME CHESTNUT HABITAT

  • COMMON PRACTICE – REDUCE SLOPES, RECLAIM AS PASTURE

  • CHESTNUT BELONGS ON MINED LAND

    • THE NATURAL LAND COVER

    • ADAPTED FOR POOR SOILS ON ROCKY SLOPES

    • CAN SURVIVE DROUGHT AND LEACHING

    • CAPABLE OF RAPID GROWTH, RESPROUTING IF INJURED

    • WILDLIFE SUPPORT VIA NUTS AND BROWSE


Tacf now a partner in mine land reforestation
TACF NOW A PARTNER IN MINE LAND REFORESTATION

  • 1.3 MILLION ACRES OF LAND FOR RECLAMATION

  • MAJOR PORTION LEFT FROM PRE-LAW TIMES

  • CHESTNUT BELONGS ON THESE LANDS

  • MAJOR OPPORTUNITY FOR RE-INTRODUCTION OF CHESTNUT

  • DOES NOT IMPLY SUPPORT FOR MOUNTAIN-TOP REMOVAL



Reclamation background
RECLAMATION BACKGROUND

  • DRIVEN BY 1977 SMCRA LAW

  • DESIGNED TO STABILIZE LAND AND MINIMIZE EROSION

  • REGULATORS TRADITIONALLY EXPECT

    • SMOOTH AND COMPACTED SURFACE

    • DENSE GRASS AND LEGUME SOD

  • RECLAMATION REQUIRES

    • MECHANICAL COMPACTION

    • ABUNDANT SEED AND FERTILIZER

    • SEDIMENT CATCHMENT PONDS

  • FINAL PRODUCT BECOMES POOR PASTURE

    • FULL OF INVASIVE SHRUBS

    • HOSTILE TO TREE ESTABLISHMENT




Goals of the initiative
GOALS OF THE INITIATIVE

  • Plant more high-value hardwood trees on reclaimed surface mined lands in Appalachia

  • Increase the survival rate of the planted trees

  • Increase growth rates and productivity from the surviving trees

  • Expedite the establishment of forest habitat through natural succession


Statement of mutual intent
Statement of Mutual Intent

  • The 161 signatories collected to date represent 77 different organizations:

    • 27 Government Agencies

    • 20 Environmental Groups

    • 16 Industry Organizations

    • 9 Academic Institutions

    • 5 Citizen Groups

  • KentuckyGovernor Ernie Fletcher signed on 8/17/05

  • The National Mining Association signed on 9/20/05


  • Arri organization
    ARRI ORGANIZATION

    • CORE TEAM

      • US OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING

      • 7 STATES IN THE APPALACHIAN COAL REGION

    • SCIENCE TEAM

      • TEAM LEADERS

        • DR JIM BURGER, VIRGINIA TECH UNIV

        • DR DONALD GRAVES, UNIV OF KENTUCKY

      • MORE THAN 20 TEAM MEMBERS FROM 10 UNIVERSITIES AND THE USFS

    • TACF PARTNERSHIP (AMONG OTHERS)





    Where will trees grow on spoil
    WHERE WILL TREES GROW ON SPOIL?

    • IDENTIFY NATURAL FOREST ON DUMPED SPOIL

    • OPTIMAL GROWTH WHEN LOOSE SPOIL AT LEAST 4 FEET DEEP

    • DENSE TURF LIMITS TREE GROWTH

      • COMPETITION FOR LIGHT

      • COMPETITION FOR MOISTURE

      • ATTRACTION FOR RODENTS


    Carbon and coal how does chestnut fit in
    REAL GROWTH CAN BE ACHIEVEDCOMPARE PLANTED PINE ON LOOSE SPOIL WITH PINE ON COMPACTED SOIL AFTER 9 YEARS


    Fra reclamation forestry reclamation approach
    FRA RECLAMATION(FORESTRY RECLAMATION APPROACH)

    • STEP 1 – CREATE SUITABLE ROOTING MEDIUM (4 FEET OF “BEST AVAILABLE” MATERIAL)

    • STEP 2 – LOOSELY GRADE SPOIL TO CREATE NON-COMPACTED MEDIUM

    • STEP 3 – USE GROUND COVER CONSISTENT WITH TREE GROWTH (50% IDEAL)

    • STEP 4 – PLANT TWO TYPES OF TREES

      • EARLY SUCCESSION FOR COVER AND WILDLIFE

      • VALUABLE HARDWOOD TREES FOR TIMBER

    • STEP 5 – USE PROPER PLANTING METHODS (PROFESSIONAL PLANTERS)



    Carbon and coal how does chestnut fit in

    ADVISORY #3 - LOW COMPACTION GRADING TO ENHANCE REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES


    Loose dumped spoil
    LOOSE DUMPED SPOIL REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES


    Fra slope conditions
    FRA SLOPE CONDITIONS REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES

    • HUMMOCKS AND EXPOSED ROCKS INSTEAD OF CAT TRACKS

    • INFILTRATION INSTEAD OF RUNOFF

    • HYDRAULIC RESPONSE (PEAK AND BASEFLOW) SIMILAR TO FOREST

    • SEDIMENT CAUGHT IN HOLLOWS

    • NATURAL-LOOKING SURFACE

    • TREES NOT PLANTED IN ROWS


    Recently planted fra slope
    RECENTLY PLANTED FRA SLOPE REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES


    Typical year old tree
    TYPICAL YEAR-OLD TREE REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES


    Carbon and coal how does chestnut fit in

    Mineland Reforestation- Starfire Mine, KY REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES

    1 yr

    3 yr

    7 yr

    Non-compacted Site

    Compacted Site


    10 year old plantation
    10-YEAR OLD PLANTATION REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES


    Natural recruitment of native trees
    NATURAL RECRUITMENT OF NATIVE TREES REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES


    Early chestnut trials fully american stock mike french univ of kentucky brian mccarthy ohio univ
    EARLY CHESTNUT TRIALS REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINESFULLY AMERICAN STOCKMike French, Univ of KentuckyBrian McCarthy, Ohio Univ


    Mine spoil materials brown sandstone gray sandstone and shale
    MINE SPOIL MATERIALS REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINESBROWN SANDSTONE, GRAY SANDSTONE, AND SHALE


    Controled substrate experiments
    CONTROLED SUBSTRATE EXPERIMENTS REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES

    • TEST PLOTS ON WEATHERED AND UNWEATHERD SPOIL

    • OTHER PLOTS OF MIXED SUBSTRATE AND PURE SHALE

    • RIPPED PLANATIONS IN COMPACTED SOIL

    • MONITOR INFILTRATION AND LEACHATE

    • COARSE SOILS MINIMIZE INK DISEASE

    • AT LEAST 70% SURVIVAL ON ALL PLOTS WITH

      • UNCOMPACTED SUBSTRATE

      • LOW HERBACEOUS COMPETITION

    • HIGHER Ph AND SALINITY IN UNWEATHERED SPOIL

      • VALUES NEAR UPPER TOLERANCE LIMIT

      • TREES SHOW STRESS BUT SURVIVE AND GROW


    Brown sandstone results
    BROWN SANDSTONE RESULTS REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES


    Gray sandstone results
    GRAY SANDSTONE RESULTS REFORESTATION SUCCESS ON COAL SURFACE MINES



    Important issues
    IMPORTANT ISSUES RANGE

    • TECHNICAL CHALLENGES

      • FLUSHING OF NUTRIENTS FROM COARSE SOIL

      • INNOCULATION - NATURAL BACTERIA, FUNGI

      • DROUGHT STRESS - COARSE SOIL SUBSTRATE

      • MANAGE SPREAD OF INK DISEASE

    • REGULATORY CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

      • REGULATORS TO MODIFY RULES

      • INDUSTRY TO AVOID RELAXING COMPLIANCE

    • NEED TO FIT VARIABLE SITE CONDITIONS

      • DIFFERENT TERRAIN CONDITIONS

      • DIFFERENT CLIMATE AND SOIL PROPERTIES

      • DEVELOP “SYNTHETIC SOIL” RECIPES TO SUIT SITES

    • EMPHASIS ON COMMERCIAL TIMBER PRODUCTS

      • BUILT INTO REGULATORY “BEST USE” CONCEPT

      • DOWNPLAYS CULTURAL AND ECOLOGICAL VALUES

    • AVOID IMPLIED APPROVAL OF OTHER INDUSTRY PRACTICES


    Summary
    SUMMARY RANGE

    • CHESTNUT-DOMINATED FOREST BELONGS ON APPALACHIAN MINE SITES

    • MINE RECLAMATION A POTENTIAL PATHWAY TO GET CHESTNUT INTO THE FUTURE FOREST

    • MOST RELEVANT CARBON ISSUE FOR CHESTNUT IS REFORESTATION OF FORMER MINED LANDS

    • ARRI PROJECTS DEMONSTRATE THAT FOREST CAN BE RE-ESTABLISHED ON MINED LAND

    • ARRI PARTNERSHIP A NATURAL WEDDING OF TACF AND ENVIRONMENTAL INTERESTS


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