Towards a gis methodology for disaster risk assessments
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Towards A GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments. L. L. Lewis GISc Professional (Production). Presentation Outline. Introduction Disaster Management Cycle Scope Definitions Overview of Methodology Results and Challenges Conclusion. Introduction.

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Towards A GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments

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Towards a gis methodology for disaster risk assessments

Towards A GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments

  • L. L. Lewis

  • GISc Professional (Production)


Presentation outline

Presentation Outline

  • Introduction

    • Disaster Management Cycle

    • Scope

    • Definitions

  • Overview of Methodology

  • Results and Challenges

  • Conclusion

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Introduction

Introduction

“In dealing with extreme events, many of the critical

problems that arise are inherently spatial”

(Thomas J Cova, 1999)

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Introduction1

Introduction

  • Legislative Context

  • Disaster Management Act (Act 57 of 2002)

    • Three spheres of government

    • Disaster Management Plans (S 39 and 53), the prerequisite of which is a Disaster Risk Assessment.

      • Department of Local Government: Disaster Risk Reduction is mandated to facilitate and coordinate the reduction of potential risks posed by hazards in the province.

  • Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Act (Act 54 of 2003)

    • Aims to establish, via the Committee for Spatial Information (CSI), standards and procedure to promote information sharing and minimise duplication of datasets.

      • Reliable, up-to-date spatial data describes the current, on the ground situation that could influence decisions relating to emergency response e.g. access to roads.

      • Incorrect or outdated information could therefore directly impact on the quality of decision-making and hence on the quality of the response to disaster situations

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Benefit of gis

Benefit of GIS

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Disaster management cycle

Disaster Management Cycle

  • Adapted from Godschalk D R, 1991

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Scope

Scope

  • Focus area: West Coast District Municipality

  • Discussion of GIS methodology in a disaster risk context

  • Use of available GIS data relevant to the disaster risk assessment

  • Excluding aggregated data

  • Aim:

    • Developing a GIS based methodology applicable to Disaster Risk Management

    • Focus on a multidisciplinary approach based on community participation and scientific input from a broad range of experts and GIS

    • Increase efficiency and improve the quality of decision-making in all level of disaster management activities.

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Definitions

Definitions

  • As per West Coast Disaster Risk Assessment:

  • Capacity: The combination of all strengths, attributes and resources available within a community, society or organisation that can be used to achieve agreed goals.

  • Disaster: A progressive or sudden, widespread or localised, natural or human-caused occurrence. A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.

  • Hazard: A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.

  • Risk: The combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequences.

  • Vulnerability: The characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard.

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Towards a gis methodology for disaster risk assessments

  • Overview of Methodology


United nations international strategy for disaster reduction

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

  • Calculating Risk

  • Hazard * Vulnerability

Societal

Biological

Hydro-meteorological

Technological

Economic

Natural

Geological

Environmental

Environmental degradation

RISK =

Technological

Capacity

Contingency / emergency response plans

Adequately trained personnel

Equipment

Access to facilities offering shelter

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Public participation

Public Participation

  • Format of community based workshops:

  • One workshop per local municipality

  • Presentation regarding purpose and context

  • Identification of hazards, vulnerability and capacity

  • Mapping exercise

  • Risk prioritisation process

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Towards a gis methodology for disaster risk assessments

GIS

  • Data flow process:

  • Data collection (scientific data, workshops etc)

  • Spatialising non-spatial data (from reports and workshops)

  • Categorising data into hazards, vulnerability and capacity

  • Mapping data for the Risk Assessment document

  • Spatially calculating risk

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Scientific gis spatial assessment

Scientific GIS spatial assessment

Geodatabase 1

Risk Prioritisation

Hazard 1

Hazard 2

Hazard 3

Vulnerability 1

Vulnerability 2

Vulnerability 3

Capacity 1

Capacity 2

Capacity 3

Hazard 1

Hazard 2

Hazard 3

Vulnerability 1

Vulnerability 2

Vulnerability 3

Capacity 1

Capacity 2

Capacity 3

Raster Conversion

Collective Hazards

Collective Capacity

Collective Vulnerabilities

÷

×

Risk

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Towards a gis methodology for disaster risk assessments

  • Results & Challenges


Collective hazard map

Collective Hazard Map

  • R = H * V / C

  • Natural Hazards:

    • Geological Hazards

    • Hydro-meteorological Hazards

  • Environmental Degradation

  • Technological Hazards

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Collective vulnerability map

Collective Vulnerability Map

  • R = H * V / C

  • Societal

  • Environmental

  • Technological

  • Economic

  • Critical Facility

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Determining capacity

Determining Capacity

  • Accessibility

  • Network Analysis

  • Critical Facilities:

    • Schools- 5km

    • Health facilities- 5km

    • Police stations- 24km

    • Fire stations- 13 minutes

  • Access norms and standards & Population grid (CSIR)

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Collective capacity map

Collective Capacity Map

  • R = H * V / C

  • Access to Critical (relief) Facilities

  • Critical services able to respond

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Overall risk map

Overall Risk Map

  • R = H * V / C

  • Overall risk score spatially calculated

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Public participation gis challenges

Public Participation & GIS Challenges

  • Subjective input

    • Lack of understanding of context

    • Localised focus

  • Lack of expert attendance at workshops

    • Little / no input from local experts

    • Little / no representation from municipal departments e.g. planning, environmental management etc.

  • Opportunist participants

    • Looking for work opportunities

    • Platform to vent (service delivery) frustrations

  • Lack of understanding of the bigger picture

  • Refinement of methods

  • Lack of spatial data

  • Aggregated data

  • Silos

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Towards a gis methodology for disaster risk assessments

  • Conclusion


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Inclusive approach

  • Ownership of the Risk Assessment

  • Mitigation strategies requires local buy-in

  • Potential of GIS

  • Improved decision-making

Towards a GIS Methodology for Disaster Risk Assessments


Towards a gis methodology for disaster risk assessments

  • Lauren Lewis

  • Department of the Premier: Spatial Information

  • +27 (0)21 483 3943

  • +27 (0)86 519 4956

  • [email protected]


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