Geospatial attribute data
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Geospatial Attribute Data . We Lied!. Earlier this semester we claimed that data was either spatial, i.e. said where something was, or attribute, i.e. told you something about an object. In fact, on the exam, we accepted “non-spatial data” as part of the definition of attribute data.

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Geospatial Attribute Data

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Geospatial attribute data

Geospatial Attribute Data

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


We lied

We Lied!

  • Earlier this semester we claimed that data was either spatial, i.e. said where something was, or attribute, i.e. told you something about an object.

  • In fact, on the exam, we accepted “non-spatial data” as part of the definition of attribute data.

  • BUT, it’s not that simple…

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Some attribute data is tied to a location not an object

Some attribute data is tied to a location, not an object

Estimate of phytoplankton distribution in the surface ocean: global composite image of surface chlorophyll a concentration (mg m-3) estimated from SeaWiFS data (Source: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, USA and ORBIMAGE, Virginia, USA).

Estimate of phytoplankton distribution in the surface ocean: global composite image of surface chlorophyll a concentration (mg m-3) estimated from SeaWiFS data (Source: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, USA and ORBIMAGE, Virginia, USA).

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Spatial data a few definitions

Spatial Data – A Few Definitions

  • Spatial data: Data that have some form of spatial or geographical reference that enables them to be located in two or three-dimensional space. -- Heywood, Cornelius & Carver, p. 289

  • Spatial data: Data that relate to the geometry of spatial features. -- Chang, Introduction to Geographical Information Systems, p. 4

  • Spatial data: Any information about the location and shape of, and relationships among, geographic features. This includes remotely sensed data as well as map data. -- The GIS Dictionary, http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/agidict/welcome.html, searched 3/27/2007 (as of 11/11/2008, “temporarily unavailable”)

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


A compromise

A Compromise

Geospatial Attribute Data

Data about a non-spatial entity that is intrinsically tied to a given location

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Examples of geospatial attribute data

Examples of Geospatial Attribute Data

  • Rainfall

  • Snow depth

  • Land use

  • Crime rates

  • Average income level

  • Population statistics

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


What is special about this data

What is special about this data?

  • Data sets are generally very large

  • Turning such data into information (or knowledge) can be tricky (or worse!)

  • Dimensionality becomes an issue

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Dimensionality

Dimensionality

  • Paper maps are generally two-dimensional

  • While color can be used as a third dimension, it is more often used for attribute display

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Sometimes 2 d works

Sometimes 2-D works

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey (American FactFinder)

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


More fine grained 2 d

More fine-grained 2-D

Image from: http://www.csc.noaa.gov/products/nchaz/htm/lidtut.htm

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


What s the weather like in merry old england

Source

What’s the Weather Like in Merry Old England?

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


When 2 d tends to work

When 2-D tends to work

  • “Planar” area being mapped

  • One piece of data for each position

  • Minimal problem locating data in “space”

  • No “time” dimension

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


What about time

What about Time?

  • Traditionally described as a “fourth” dimension, time adds a “third” dimension to GIS data.

  • This creates problems converting the data to information and knowledge.

  • 2-D maps usually don’t cut it.

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Solutions to the time dilemma 1 graphs

Solutions to the “Time Dilemma”:1. Graphs

Source:

National Weather Service

http://newweb.erh.noaa.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?wfo=buf&gage=olnn6&view=1,1,1,1,1,1

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


More graphing

More graphing

Tropical Ocean Array

  • Buoys in Pacific Ocean

  • Monitor Conditions

  • Monitor El Niňo

http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/disdel/disdel.html

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Custom graphs from toa

Custom Graphs from TOA

  • Monthly Wind Speed data for the buoy I selected

  • 1977-2007

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Also available as

Also available as…

  • Downloadable data file

    • Formatting can be an issue

    • But if you add it to your GIS, it’s yours!

Location: 8S 165E 16 Aug 1991 to 16 Mar 2007 ( 188 times, 2 blocks) Gen. Date Mar 28 2007 Units: Winds (M/S), W. Dir (DEG), -99.9 = missing, (1,1) is NE at sqrt(2) m/s Time: 1200 16 Aug 1991 to 1200 16 Aug 1996 (index 1 to 61, 61 times) Depth (M): -4 -4 -4 -4 QUALITY YYYYMMDD HHMM UWND VWND WSPD WDIR SD 19910816 1200 -5.0 0.7 5.6 278.1 22 19910916 1200 -2.9 -1.4 4.8 243.7 22 19911016 1200 -2.7 -0.1 3.4 268.2 22 19911116 1200 -0.2 2.1 4.3 354.3 22 19911216 1200 -0.5 1.7 3.3 344.0 22 19920116 1200 1.8 1.3 4.2 53.8 22 19920215 1200 4.4 0.3 5.3 86.2 22 19920316 1200 4.0 1.0 5.3 75.7 22

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Solutions to the time dilemma 2 multiple images

Solutions to the “Time Dilemma”:2. Multiple Images

  • Really just a set of 2-D images shown side-by-side or in sequence

Source:http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:ElectoralCollegeYYYY-Large.png

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Items of note

Items of note

  • Each of the images here is a separate report (or is it “map”?), no longer directly connected to a GIS

  • Each map actually contains summary information as well as traditional map elements

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Solutions to the time dilemma 3 animation

Solutions to the “Time Dilemma”:3. Animation

Animation: motion pictures created by recording a series of still images—drawings, objects, or people in various positions of incremental movement—that when played back no longer appear individually as static images but combine to produce the illusion of unbroken motion.

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567360_1/Animation.html

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


My daily habit doppler data

Animation

My Daily Habit – Doppler Data

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


More weather from england

More Weather From England

http://www.xcweather.co.uk/

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Watch my friends ride across the country

Watch My Friends Ride Across The Country

http://stats.raceacrossamerica.org/2006/animation/

A similar site, with elevation profiles, exists for the Tour de France, but it only animates during the race

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Get seasick

Get Seasick?

http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/jsdisplay/

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


What if there is a real third dimension

What if there is a real third dimension?

  • Actual images (video)

    • But these can only show “transparent” or “discrete” attribute data

    • Flyovers/fly-throughs help

  • Virtual reality

    • But most users don’t have the equipment to “view” this

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


And in the movies

And in the movies…

(Screen snapshot of) Animation of tornado-monitoring “buoys”

from the Warner Brothers film Twister

Source: http://www.vfxhq.com/1996/twister.html

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Conclusions about geospatial data

Conclusions about geospatial data

  • It’s abundant

  • It’s important

  • Display is a challenge

  • Technologies only get better

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


Great data sets abound

Great Data Sets Abound

  • Census bureau

  • USGS

  • Weather Service

  • Scientific labs

    • (esp. government funded)

CS 128/ES 228 - Lecture 8b


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