Comm 5402 advanced interpersonal communication
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COMM 5402 Advanced Interpersonal Communication. Spring 2004. Human Need for Explanation. Need for theory in human mind 3 ways of experience the world observer theorist (observer & explanation) researcher (theorist & test). Defining Theory I. Defining Theory II. Theoretical Models.

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Comm 5402 advanced interpersonal communication

COMM 5402Advanced Interpersonal Communication

Spring 2004


Human need for explanation

Human Need for Explanation

  • Need for theory in human mind

  • 3 ways of experience the world

    • observer

    • theorist (observer & explanation)

    • researcher (theorist & test)


Defining theory i

Defining Theory I


Defining theory ii

Defining Theory II


Theoretical models

Theoretical Models

  • Units (Variables)

  • Laws of Interaction

  • Boundaries

  • System States

  • Propositions

  • Operationalizations

  • Hypotheses


Questions

Questions

  • What about Truth? Does research lead to truth?

  • What exactly is the difference between adequacy and validity of a theory?

  • Why is a preferred theory determined by consensus and not by validity?


Ideas to keep in mind

Ideas to keep in mind

1) No a priori limits on what theory is about

2) A theoretical model has to be complete

3) Adequacy = internal logic

4) Validity is determined through research

5) Only testing makes a theory scientific


Preferred theory

Preferred Theory

Is a matter of consensus

- consensus about boundaries & scope

- consensus about the internal logic

- consensus about empirical evidence


Standards of a scientific theory

Standards of a Scientific Theory

  • Explanation

  • Prediction

  • Parsimony

  • Falsefiability

  • Utility


Description vs research

Description vs. Research

  • Descriptions answers questions for the answer’s sake

  • Research tests predictions to validate a theoretical model


Two goals of science

Prediction

focus on outcomes

focus on variable values

focus on stability & transition of system states

Understanding

focus on understanding of causal relationships among units

Two Goals of Science


Two paradoxes

Two Paradoxes

  • Precision: prediction without understanding

  • Power: understanding without prediction


Assignment

Assignment

  • In your group, think of an example for the precision paradox and an example for the power paradox.

  • Using your examples, determine whether they really are paradoxes, and try to resolve them (i.e., explain how they are possible)


Explaining the paradoxes

Explaining the Paradoxes

  • Precision: deterministic relationships among units lead to stable associations between them that can be observed

  • Power: theoretical models highlight significant relationships between units w/o accounting for ALL causal factors or their interactions


Units defined

Units defined:

Units are mental conceptualizations that represent the parts of a theoretical model that interact with one another in specific ways.


Theoretical models1

Theoretical Models

Unit

-

Unit

+

-

Unit

= Laws of Interaction

= Boundary


Properties of units

Properties of Units

  • Units are things or properties of things

  • Units are plural, at least in principle

  • Units can be attributes or variables, i.e., are categorical or continuous

  • Units can be real or nominal, i.e., represent actual or hypothetical constructs

  • Units can be sophisticated or primitive, i.e., are defined or undefined


Exercise determined the properties of these units

Exercise: Determined the properties of these units

  • Relational intimacy in a couple

  • A person’s religious belief

  • A group’s ethnicity

  • Family communication patterns

  • A person’s height


Homework assignment

Homework Assignment

Think of a phenomenon in interpersonal communication that is in need of a theoretical explanation (i.e., a topic for your term paper). Write a one paragraph research proposal answering the what & why questions.

Due Wednesday!


Laws of interaction

Laws of Interaction:

  • link units of a theory

  • do NOT imply causality

  • may be categorical

  • may be sequential

  • may be determinant


Types of interaction

Types of Interaction:

  • linear

  • curvilinear

  • recursive


Efficiencies of laws

Efficiencies of Laws

High Efficiency

  • rate of change

  • covariance

  • directionality

  • presence-absence

Low Efficiency


Conditions for causality

Conditions for Causality

  • Covariance

  • Temporal Precedence

  • Exclusion of Alternatives


Conditions for causality1

Conditions for Causality

  • Covariance

  • Temporal Precedence

  • Exclusion of Alternatives


Propositions

Propositions

  • A truth statement in regard to the theoretical model

  • NOT in regard to reality (i.e., no need for empirical truth)

  • Must follow accepted rules of logic

  • A statement about the relationship among units

  • NOT a statement about unit or set membership.


Propositions laws

Propositions & Laws

  • equivalent to a law of interaction

  • more limited then a law of interaction

  • combining two or more laws of interaction


Empirical indicators

Empirical Indicators

  • Operationalization of a theoretical construct

  • Good Indicators are reliable and valid

    Reliability: consistency of measure

    Validity: measuring the right thing.


Reliability and validity

Reliability and Validity

Validity

low

high

low

Reliability

high


Types of validity in social science

Types of Validity in Social Science

  • Face Validity

    • Does it make sense?

  • Content Validity

    • Is the entire concept represented?

  • Criterion Validity

    • Does it correlate with other known measures?

  • Construct Validity

    • Does it behave like the construct outside the model?


Hypothesis

Hypothesis:

A hypothesis is a prediction about the values of units of a theory (where empirical indicators are employed for the units in each proposition) that allow researchers to assess the validity of the theoretical model.


Three condition of a good test of a scientific theory

Three condition of a good test of a scientific theory

  • A) deducible

    • from the theoretical model

  • B) improbable

    • unless theoretical model is “true”

  • C) verifiable (testable)


Factors

Factors:

  • Quality of hypotheses

  • Validity of indicators

  • Completeness of theoretical model


Hypotheses testing and theory development

Hypotheses Testing and Theory Development

  • Extensive Tests: test all strategic hypotheses

  • Intensive Tests: test only key hypotheses

  • Inductive Tests: build theory from empirical data


Defining interpersonal communication

Defining Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal Communication is any interaction between two or more persons who:

* exchange information,

* create meaning,

* exert influence, or

* establish social reality


Intimacy

Intimacy

  • A widely used concept in study of relationships

  • A variable property of a relationship, including (among others):

    • Closeness & Interdependence

    • Self-Disclosure

    • Warmth & Affection


Importance of intimacy

Importance of Intimacy

  • Associated with relational development

  • Associated with relationship quality & satisfaction

  • Associated with personal health & well being (psychological & physical)


Assignment1

Assignment

  • Define Intimacy. In 1-2 paragraphs, write a definition of intimacy that captures the concept of intimacy how you would define it for yourself.


Four approaches to intimacy

Four Approaches to Intimacy

  • Life Span Development

    • Develop identity  develop intimacy

  • Motivational

    • Individual need/ability for intimacy

  • Equilibrium

    • Dialectic between independence and intimacy

  • Equity

    • Intimacy as fairness and equality


Intimacy in romantic dyads

Intimacy in Romantic Dyads

  • Three Core Dimensions:

    • Intimacy

    • Love

    • Commitment

  • Conceptually distinct, but dependent on one another


Love styles lee 1973

Love Styles (Lee, 1973)

  • Primary Styles

    • Eros: passionate, intense, powerful

    • Ludus: playful, non-committal, flirtatious

    • Storge: comfortable, stable, gradual

  • Secondary Styles

    • Pragma: practical, rational, pragmatic

    • Mania: manic, obsessive, extreme

    • Agape: altruistic, devoted, content


Interdependence of intimacy love commitment

Interdependence of Intimacy, Love, & Commitment

Commitment

LOVE

Intimacy


Validity of the msis

Validity of the MSIS

  • Face Validity?

    • Do items seem to capture the concept?

  • Content Validity?

    • Do items cover entire breadths of concept?


Dimensions of the msis

Dimensions of the MSIS

  • Self-Disclosure (2,4,10)

  • Affection (3,12, 16)

  • Satisfaction (11, 14, 17)

  • Time spend together (1, 7)

  • Understanding (5, 13)

  • Feeling Close (6, 9)

  • Being Supportive (8, 15)


Msis population means

Satisfied Couples

Married

Males = 153

Females = 156

Unmarried

Males = 135

Females = 139

Dissatisfied Couples

Married

Males = 125

Females = 134

MSIS Population Means


Social penetration theory

Social Penetration Theory

  • Relationship Growth = More Intimacy

  • Intimacy results from Self-Disclosure

    Increase Depths of Knowledge of Other

    Increase Breadth of Knowledge of Other

  • Motivation for Self-Disclosure is expected outcome (rewards-costs)


Self disclosure and intimacy

Self-Disclosure and Intimacy

Intimate

Relationship

Non-Intimate

Relationship


Four stages of exchange

Four Stages of Exchange

1) orientation

2) exploratory affective exchange

3) affective exchange

4) stable exchange


Social exchange theory thibaut kelly

Social Exchange Theory(Thibaut & Kelly)

  • Terms

    O = Perceived Outcome

    CL = Comparison Level (Expectation)

    CLalt = CL of Alternatives (Expectations for alternative relationship)

  • Predictions

    Satisfaction: compare O and CL

    Stability: compare O and CLalt


Relationship outcomes predicted by social exchange theory

Relationship Outcomes predicted by Social Exchange Theory

O < CLalt

O > CLalt

Satisfaction

satisfied

unstable

satisfied

stable

O > CL

dissatisfied

stable

dissatisfied

unstable

O < CL

Stability


Five aspects of exchange

Five Aspects of Exchange

1) Reward & Cost: Difference or Ratio?

2) Absolute Rewards and Costs

3) Immediate Rewards and Costs

4) Forecast Rewards and Costs

5) Cumulative Rewards and Costs


Exchange profit vs equity motivation

Exchange: Profit vs. Equity Motivation

Profit = an individual’s rewards/cost ratio

Equity = each person’s rewards/costs ratio is about equal


Exchange profit vs equity motivation1

Exchange: Profit vs. Equity Motivation

Profit = an individual’s rewards/cost ratio

Equity = each person’s rewards/costs ratio is about equal

Questions:

  • Is self-disclosure motivated by desire for profit or equity?

  • Does it make a difference?


Dyadic effect

Dyadic Effect

  • Dyadic Effect: Observation that self-disclosure by one person is usually reciprocated by the other.

    Explanations:

  • Norm of Reciprocity

  • Attributions


Attributions for self disclosure

Attributions for Self-Disclosure

  • Content (cause for SD)

    • Self

    • Other

    • Relationship (situation?)

  • Valence:

    • Positive

    • Neutral

    • Negative


Attributions and reciprocation

Attributions and Reciprocation

Attribution

Positive

Neutral

Negative

- SD

+ SD

+/- SD

Self

+/- SD

+ SD

- SD

Other

Relationship

+ SD

+/- SD

- SD


Factors affecting attributions

Factors Affecting Attributions

  • Timing of Self-Disclosure

  • Social Rules & Norms

  • Relationship History

  • Salient Situational Factors

  • Content of Self-Disclosure


A model of reciprocity in self disclosure

A Model of Reciprocity inSelf-Disclosure

Attributions

Self-Disclosure

Interest in Relationship

Self-Disclosure

Capacity to Self-Disclosure


Marriage as social transition

Marriage as Social Transition

  • A social transition affects groups of people rather than individuals

  • Motives for social transitions are both psychological and social

  • The three phases of the marriage as social transition are: precommitment, postcommitment, & event


Conditions for commitment

Conditions for Commitment

  • On Average, greater pros than cons (i.e., greater rewards than costs)

  • Small variability (consistency) of positive outcomes


Causes for commitment changes

Causes for Commitment Changes

  • Intrapersonal/Normative

    Standards, beliefs, ideals, rules, norms

  • Dyadic

    Agreement, conflict, interdependence, behavior

  • Social Network

    Reactions from family& friends

  • Circumstantial

    External events, job-related, etc.


Typical effects of specific causes

Typical Effects of Specific Causes

  • Intrapersonal/Normative (7%)

    moderate & rapid decrease

  • Dyadic (64%)

    affects all changes, but is generally positive

  • Social Network (20%)

    moderate & rapid decrease

  • Circumstantial (10%)

    moderate decrease


Modeling marital intention

Modeling Marital Intention

Dyadic factors

Intrapersonal factors

Decision to Marry

Circumstantial factors

Network factors


Modeling marital intention1

Modeling Marital Intention

Self-Disclosure

Dyadic factors

Intrapersonal factors

Decision to Marry

Circumstantial factors

Intimacy Needs

Network factors


Modeling marital intention2

Modeling Marital Intention

Self-Disclosure

Dyadic factors

MSIS

Intrapersonal factors

Decision to Marry

Circumstantial factors

Intimacy Needs

Network factors


Components of social exchange

Components of Social Exchange

1) equivalence of type of resources

2) immediacy of exchange of resources

3) equivalence of value of resources

4) contingency of exchange

5) range of resources available for exchange

6) transferability of obligation to exchange

7) obligation to initiate exchange

8) imbalance of exchange


Exchange rules and intimacy

Exchange Rules and Intimacy

  • exchange becomes more heteromorphic as intimacy increases

  • amount of time before return is needed increases as intimacy increases

  • need to return resource of equivalent value decreases as intimacy increases

  • exchange becomes less contingent as intimacy increases


Exchange rules and intimacy1

Exchange Rules and Intimacy

  • range of resources that are exchanged increases as intimacy increases

  • obligation to exchange resources is more transferable to another person as intimacy increases

  • degree to which persons feel obligated to initiate in exchange increases as intimacy increases

  • degree of acceptable unilateral indebtedness increases as intimacy increases


Axioms of social exchange theory

Axioms of Social Exchange Theory

  • Social Exchange is one important factor in all human relationships

  • Social Exchange is determined by the Norm of Reciprocity

  • Norm of Reciprocity varies according to Intimacy

  • Social Exchange varies along specific dimensions (components)


Limitations of social exchange theory

Limitations of Social Exchange Theory:

  • The definitions of exchange rules are clear only for low intimacy

  • The definitions for exchange rules are unclear for high intimacy

  • Important terms such as resource are undefined or defined too broadly

  • The mechanism that is used to compute and remember balances is undefined


Communal relationships

Communal Relationships

  • Based on concern for welfare of other

  • Need is basis for transfer of resources

  • Receipt of benefit does not create “debt” or obligation to “return favor”

  • Characterized by “equality of affect”

  • Vary in strength

  • Vary in certainty


Comparing exchange communal relationships

Exchange

Norm of Reciprocity

Transfer initiated if other can reciprocate

Relationship is means for instrumental goals

Communal

Norm of Mutual Responsiveness

Transfer initiated if other in need

Relationship is intrinsically rewarding

Comparing Exchange & Communal Relationships


Relationship type and attraction

Relationship Type and Attraction

  • Communal Relationship

    • returned favor decreases attraction

    • request for returned favor decreases attraction

    • request for favor increases attraction*

  • Exchange Relationship

    • returned favor increases attraction

    • request for returned favor increases attraction

    • request for favor decreases attraction

  • Ergo: Attraction function of met expectations


Features of women s talk

Features of Women’s Talk

  • ask more questions

  • engage in conversational maintinance

  • verbal minimal responses

  • silent protest

  • more integrative language


Features of men s talk

Features of Men’s Talk

  • interrupt more

  • more challenges & disputes

  • ignore others

  • control topic

  • more declarations and opinions


Cross gender miscommunication

Cross-Gender Miscommunication

  • Minimal Responses

    • agreement vs. interest

  • Questions

    • request for info vs. keeping other talking

  • Introducing Topics & Topic Shifts

    • individual responsibility vs. cooperation

  • Discussing Problems

    • finding solutions vs. empathy


Gender differences in relational cognition

Gender Differences in Relational Cognition

  • Women think more frequently & complexly about their relationships

  • Women habitually think & talk about relationship

  • Men think & talk about relationship only during crisis

  • Women’s well-being more tied to relationship perceptions than men’s


Gender differences in self concept

Gender Differences in Self-Concept

  • Women:

    • Relational self-concept

    • Identity based on friendship & popularity

    • Femininity indicative of relational orientation

  • Men:

    • Separate self-concept

    • Identity based on achievement & autonomy

    • Masculinity based on separate orientation


Linking gender self concept and communication

Linking Gender, Self-concept, and Communication

Gender based Socialization

Gender based Self-Concept

Gender specific Behavior


The biological view

The Biological View

  • Sexes are inherently different in some respects due to biological functions

  • Men are stronger & more aggressive

  • Women are more verbally fluent


The theory of evolution

The Theory of Evolution

Life evolves through the dual process of random mutation and selection, such that those changes that increase a gene’s (i.e., usually its carrier) reproductive success are passed on to future generations and spread through the gene pool, whereas changes that decrease a gene’s (i.e., usually its carrier) reproductive success are not passed on and disappear from the gene pool.


Theory of evolution darwin

Theory of Evolution (Darwin)

  • Variation (random change of traits)

  • Inheritance (passing on of traits to offspring)

  • Selection (of advantageous traits)

    - Survival

    - Reproduction


Inclusive fitness hamilton

Inclusive Fitness (Hamilton)

  • Evolution understood from the gene’s perspective(I.e., Selfish Gene)

    • Essentially, genes evolve

    • Solves “problem” of altruism


Evolved psychological mechanisms

Evolved Psychological Mechanisms

  • solve specific recurring problems of survival or reproduction

  • takes in limited information

  • uses decision rules to obtain output

  • output can be psychological, physiological, or behavioral


Sex differences due to evolution

Sex Differences due to Evolution

  • i.e., sex-differences in behavior that are the result of different reproductive challenges for the sexes

  • Parental Investment

  • Parental Certainty


Parental investment

Parental Investment

  • Men = low investment (intercourse)

    • Less selective with sex partners

    • Attraction based on fertility

  • Women = high investment (pregnancy)

    • More selective with sex partners

    • Attraction based on ability to provide and loyalty


Parental certainty

Parental Certainty

  • Men = low certainty

    • Sexual jealousy

    • Les attachment to children

  • Women = high certainty

    • Emotional jealousy

    • More attachment to children


The cultural view

The Cultural View

  • Two communication sub-cultures

  • Males = rational, work-oriented, leaders, in public sphere (white male belief system)

  • Females = emotional, relationship-oriented, followers, in private sphere (female belief system)


The power view

The Power View

  • Influence is central to relationships

  • Males view of power = power over people

  • Females view of power = power to accomplish


The rhetorical view

The Rhetorical View

  • Individuals make personal choices about:

    • Goals

    • Strategies

    • Roles

  • Males and Females differ in the choices the make (often due to situation)


Comparing the 4 views

Comparing the 4 Views

Biological

Cultural

Power

Rhetorical

Deterministic

MORE

LESS

Potential for Change

LESS

MORE


4 viewpoints on gender differences

4 Viewpoints on Gender Differences

  • Biology

    - differences due to evolution

  • Culture

    - two spheres with different belief systems

  • Power

    - different definitions and uses of power

  • Rhetoric

    - different choices made by men & women


Relationship satisfaction

Relationship Satisfaction

Conceptualizations/Operationalizations:

  • Happiness with relationship/partner

  • Psychological intimacy in relationship

  • Sexual & physical intimacy

  • Interdependence with partner (severity of loss)

  • Adjustment to relationship/partner

  • Commitment to relationship/partner


Antecedents to satisfaction

Antecedents to Satisfaction

  • Achieving Intimacy (psychological & physical)

  • Becoming Interdependent & Adjusting to it

  • Meeting or Exceeding Expectations (Comparison Level)


Satisfaction and communication

Satisfaction and Communication

Intimacy

Interde-pendence

Communication

Satisfaction

Adjustment


Nvc satisfaction

NVC & Satisfaction

  • Non-verbal accuracy is associated with greater marital satisfaction

  • Married couples are much better at accurate NVC than stranger couples

  • Women are more accurate encoders of nonverbal affect, especially positive affect using the visual channel


Nvc of dissatisfied partners

NVC of Dissatisfied Partners

  • More difficulty conveying positive affect

  • More difficulty decoding neutral affect

  • More difficulty predicting NVC success

  • Less positive on neutral affect

  • More use of negative affect


The relationship between nvc and satisfaction

The Relationship between NVC and Satisfaction

  • Do better nonverbal communication skills lead to greater satisfaction? How so?

  • Does greater satisfaction lead to better nonverbal communication? How so?


Defining understanding

Defining Understanding

Three Levels of Understanding

  • Being able to predict other’s behavior

  • Being able to explain processes that lead to behavior (rational understanding)

  • Being able to experience other’s thoughts and feelings (empathetic understanding)


The role of understanding

The Role of Understanding?

Intimacy

Communication

Interde-pendence

Satisfaction

Understanding

Adjustment


Marriage types

Marriage Types

  • Traditionals: high interdependence, conventional ideology, engage conflict

  • Independents: high interdependence, unconventional ideology, engage conflict

  • Separates: low interdependence, conventional ideology, avoid conflict


Marital types and verbal communication

Marital Types and Verbal Communication

  • Traditionals & Independents

    • more fondness

    • more pleasantness

  • Separates

    • less fondness

    • less pleasantness


Marital satisfaction and verbal communication by gender

Marital Satisfaction and Verbal Communication by Gender

  • Husbands’ Satisfaction

    • Wives’ responsiveness

    • Wives’ use of we-ness

    • Husbands’ fondness of wives

    • Husbands’ use of we-ness

  • Wives’ Satisfaction

    • Wives’ fondness of husbands

    • Wives use of we-ness


Relational maintenance strategies

Relational Maintenance Strategies

  • Positivity

  • Openness

  • Assurances

  • Network

  • Sharing Tasks


Predicting relational maintenance strategy use

Predicting Relational Maintenance Strategy Use

  • Gender

    • Females use more

  • Social Exchange

    • Benefit-ratio predicts maintenance strategies

    • Equity: curvilinear relationship

    • Interdependence: linear relationship


Benefits ratio and maintenance strategy use

Benefits-Ratio and Maintenance Strategy Use

Interdependence

Strategy

Use

Equity

Benefits Ratio


Marriage beliefs

Marriage Beliefs

  • Marriages are determined by 3 underlying beliefs

    • ideology

    • interdependence

    • conflict style (avoidance)


Marriage types1

Marriage Types

  • Traditionals: high interdependence, conventional ideology, engage conflict

  • Independents: high interdependence, unconventional ideology, engage conflict

  • Separates: low interdependence, conventional ideology, avoid conflict


Marriage types and conflict

Marriage Types and Conflict

  • Traditionals = validators

    • validate each other, problem solvers

  • Independents=volatile

    • emotional, expressive, like to fight

  • Separates=avoiders

    • usually don’t bother to complain


Marital types and verbal communication1

Marital Types and Verbal Communication

  • Traditionals & Independents

    • more fondness

    • more pleasantness

  • Separates

    • less fondness

    • less pleasantness


Marital satisfaction and verbal communication by gender1

Marital Satisfaction and Verbal Communication by Gender

  • Husbands’ Satisfaction

    • Wives’ responsiveness

    • Wives’ use of we-ness

    • Husbands’ fondness of wives

    • Husbands’ use of we-ness

  • Wives’ Satisfaction

    • Wives’ fondness of husbands

    • Wives use of we-ness


Attachment

Attachment

The Strong Bond between Infant & Primary Care Giver

  • Innate (shared with many other animals)

  • Necessary for Survival & Development

  • Characterized by Multi-Stage Reaction to Separation


Attachment cont

Attachment (cont.)

  • Necessary for Survival & Development

    • Secure Base Function

    • Save Haven Function

  • Characterized by Multi-Stage Reaction to Separation:

    • Protest

    • Despair

    • Detachment

    • Rebound from Detachment


Ainsworth s attachment styles determined by strange situation

Ainsworth’s Attachment Styles(determined by Strange Situation)

  • Secure

    - briefly upset, then happy & satisfied

  • Avoidant

    - no emotional response, then avoid mother

  • Anxious/Ambivalent

    - very upset, then initially avoidant


Pcg s behavior and infant s attachment style

PCG’s Behavior and Infant’s Attachment Style

  • Reliably Available 

    Secure Attachment

  • Reliably Unavailable 

    Avoidant Attachment

  • Unreliably Available/Over Involved

     Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment


Kobak s attachment dimensions

Kobak’s Attachment Dimensions

Secure

Secure

Dismissing

Preoccupied

Dismissing

Avoidant

Preoccupied

Insecure


Bartholomew s four attachment styles

Bartholomew’s FourAttachment Styles

Model of Self

_

+

+

Preoccupied

Secure

Model

Of Other

_

Fearful

Avoidant

Dismissive


Comparing infant and adult attachment

Infant

Complementary

Parent or Other Adult

Exploration System easily overwhelmed

Adult

Reciprocal

Peer & Sexual Partner

Separation has to be sever to elicit attachment like reaction

Comparing Infant and Adult Attachment


A model of attachment transmission

A Model of Attachment Transmission

Attachment

Model

Attachment

Model

Child

Partner

PCG

Child


Cognitive representations of attachment

Cognitive Representationsof Attachment

General Attachment Model

Relationship Type

Attachment Model

Relationship Specific

Attachment Model


A model of attachment transmission ii

A Model of Attachment Transmission II

General Attachment

Model

Relationship Attachment Model

Parental

Attachment

Model

Child

PCG

Child

Partner


Reinforcing existing attachment models

Reinforcing Existing Attachment Models

  • Independence of General Attachment Model (AM) from Relationship AM

  • Selection of Partner with congruent AM

  • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

    • Own Behavior elicits Response from Partner consistent with AM

  • Relationship Experience reinforces AM


Attachment communication satisfaction i

Attachment, Communication & Satisfaction I

Attachment

Satisfaction

Communication


Attachment communication satisfaction ii

Attachment, Communication & Satisfaction II

Attachment

Satisfaction

Communication


Attachment and nonverbal communication

Attachment and Nonverbal Communication

  • Positive Model of Self

    • Less Anxiety

  • Positive Model of Other

    • More Intimacy

    • More Affiliation

  • Fearful Avoidance

    • Less Fluency


Attachment and nonverbal communication1

Attachment and Nonverbal Communication


Schemas

Schemas

Associative Networks of memory nodes


Schemas impact on cognition information processing

Schemas’ Impact on Cognition (Information Processing)

  • Bias how we perceive and interpret the world around us:

    • what we pay attention to

    • what we discount

    • what we memorize

    • what other info we access


Synesthesia i

Synesthesia I


Synesthesia ii

Synesthesia II


Important schemas

Important Schemas

  • Self

    • Attributes: personality, features, tendencies…

    • Affect & Motivations: emotions, goals,…

    • Personal History

  • Others

    • Like self, only less extensive


Relationship schemas

Relationship Schemas

  • Cognitive Representations of Relationships

  • Associate Networks that contain declarative and procedural knowledge of self, the other, and the relationship between self & other.

  • Knowledge includes: attributes, motives, emotions, relationship history, & interpersonal scripts


Self other relationship schemas

Self, Other, & Relationship Schemas

Other

Relationship

Self


Models of relationships

Models of Relationships

General

Self

Rel.

Other

Type

Self

Rel.

Other

Specific

Self

Rel.

Other


Close relationship beliefs

Close Relationship Beliefs

  • Intimacy

    • Trust, respect, communication, coping, support, acceptance, love, friendship, compromise

  • External Factors

    • Security, network, finances, similarity, kids

  • Passion

    • Sex, vitality

  • Individuality

    • Independence, equity


Model congruency and relationship satisfaction

Model Congruency and Relationship Satisfaction

  • Relationship satisfaction NOT correlated with belief strength

  • Relationship satisfaction correlated with overlap between relationship type and relationship specific beliefs


Conclusions about relationship models

Conclusions About Relationship Models

  • Relationship Type Models

    • well developed, based on socialization

    • idealistic representations

  • Relationship Specific Models

    • Well developed, based on experience

    • realistic representations

  • Both types play role in information processing


Relationship models and information processing

Relationship Models and Information Processing

  • Models are important for controlled processing

  • Models are important for automatic processing

  • Models guide behavior (directly & indirectly)


Relational model theory

Relational Model Theory

  • Only four relational models are bases of all social behavior

  • Models are generative

  • Models are pervasive

  • Models are universal


Communal sharing

Communal Sharing

  • no distinction between self and other

  • Need/ability based distribution of resources

  • categorical system


Authority ranking

Authority Ranking

  • hierarchical distinction between self and other

  • status based distribution of resources

  • ordinal system


Equality matching

Equality Matching

  • self and partner distinct, but on equal level socially

  • even (i.e., in kind) distribution of resources

  • interval system


Market pricing

Market Pricing

  • self and partner distinct but equal, although inequalities might result from behavior

  • market based distribution of resources

  • ratio system


Asocial null relationships

Asocial & Null Relationships

  • Alternatives available if persons interact with others without perceiving a relationship

  • Asocial = awareness and use of relational models for ends unrelated or antithetical to relationship

  • Null = failure to perceive other as potential relationship partner


Elementary features of relational models

Elementary Features of Relational Models

1) Models are morally obligating

2) Violations of models are sanctioned

3) Actualization of models intrinsically enjoyable

4) Models operate in disparate domains in diverse cultures

5) Models form an ordered set in terms of relations and operations that define structures

6) Models exist in more primitive mammalian and other animal life


Predictions regarding the universality of relational models

Predictions Regarding the Universality of Relational Models

1) Models emerge spontaneously regardless of culture (teaching)

2) Models are externalized (not internalized)

3) In novel situations, people use models to organize social life


Predictions regarding the acquisition of relational models

Predictions Regarding the Acquisition of Relational Models

1) Models are acquired in a predetermined sequence

2) Uses of newly acquired models are learned and fine tuned through experimentation

3) Much like language, acquisition of relational models independent of general intelligence


The role of culture

The Role of Culture

For any given relationship culture determines which relational model (or combination of models) applies to which specific relationship domain.


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