Xuv diamond detectors
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XUV DIAMOND DETECTORS. Antonio De Sio. Dep. of Astronomy and Space Science University of Firenze, Italy. XUVLab Diamond activities. Research design and development of diamond based photodetectors

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XUV DIAMOND DETECTORS

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Xuv diamond detectors

XUV DIAMOND DETECTORS

Antonio De Sio

Dep. of Astronomy and Space Science University of Firenze, Italy


Xuvlab diamond activities

XUVLabDiamond activities

  • Research design and development of diamond based photodetectors

  • Study and Characterization of single crystal and polycrystalline diamond detectors in VUV spectral range

  • Study and characterization of polycrystalline and single crystal diamond detectors in the X-ray

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Collaborations

Collaborations

  • University of Firenze, Italy

    • A. De Sio, E. Pace, A. Giannini

  • Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Italy

    • A. Marcelli, C. Castellano, D. Hampai

  • University of Roma “Tor Vergata”

    • M. Marinelli, G. Verona-Rinati

  • Diamond Synchrotron Light Source

    • G. Cinque, G. Cibin, N. Tartoni

  • Italian CNR - GILDA BEAMLINE – ESRF

    • F. D’Acapito, S. Mobilio

  • Fraunhofer Institute – Freiburg

    • C. Wild, E. Woerner

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Ideal xuv detector

Ideal XUV detector

Very low noise

Radiation hardness

REQUESTS

High sensitivity

Large area

Visible blindness

Chemical inertness

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Xuv diamond detectors

Why diamond

Solar Blindness

225nm Cutoff Wavelength

High XUV sensitivity

Energy Gap 5.5 eV

Few Thermal Carrier

No Cooling

Low Dark Currents (< pA)

Very Low Noise

Low Power Absorption

Chemical inertness

Strong Chemical Bond

Radiation Hardness

Mechanical Robust

Low Capacitance

Low dielectric constant

Electric Properties

Fast response time

High electric charge mobility

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008

High Signal Gain


Summary

Summary

  • Diamond detectors

  • Dark Current

  • Visible blindness

  • Sensitivity spectra

  • Linearity of the response with flux

  • Response time

  • Photoconductive Gain

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Detectors

DETECTORS

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Diamond detectors

Transverse geometry

Coplanargeometry

Diamond detectors

MSM structure

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


External quantum efficiency

External quantum efficiency

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Diamond devices single pixel detectors

Interdigitated electrodes

Diamond layer

Diamond Devices: Single pixel detectors

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Xuv diamond detectors

Diamond Devices: Single pixel detectors

Electrodes

Diamond layer

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Pixel array detectors

Pixel array detectors

  • Lift-off photolitographic technique

  • Al contacts (blocking)

  • 20 m interelectrode spacing

  • 70 m pitch

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Dark current

DARK CURRENT

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Photodetectors dark current

Photodetectors dark current

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Visible blindness

VISIBLE BLINDNESS

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Visible blindness1

100

E. Pace et al., Diam. Rel. Mater. (2000)

10

1

0,1

E = 2.8 V/mm

UV / VIS > 108

0,01

1E-3

1E-4

External quantum efficiency

1E-5

1E-6

1E-7

1E-8

200

400

600

800

1000

Wavelength (nm)

Visible blindness

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Uv pulsed mode measurements

UV Pulsed mode measurements

  • Responsivity lower than our detection limit at >1300 nm

  • Substrate contribution at >225 nm (Nitrogen impurities in the Ib substrate)

  • Stable and highly reproducible detector response

  • Undesirable memory effects as well as pumping ARE NOT OBSERVED

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Sensitivity spectra

SENSITIVITY SPECTRA

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Euv detection capabilities

Sample: SCD 31

Sample: SCD 8

He-Ne

He

EUV detection capabilities

  • Emission spectrum of a DC discharge He and He-Ne lamp

  • HeII 25.6 nm and 30.4 nm HeI as well 58.4 nm emission lines clearly detected

  • Good detection capability of the device even in this extreme UV spectral region

  • High signal to noise ratio, in spite of the pA range of the output photocurrent

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Euv electro optical performance

EUV electro-optical performance

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Duv electro optical performance

DUV electro-optical performance

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Linearity

LINEARITY

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Uv pulsed mode measurements1

UV Pulsed mode measurements

  • 215 nm illumination

  • Linearity test by systematically varying the optical diffuser to diamond detector distance

  • Detector response as a function of the calculated incident energy

  • Good linear behaviour

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Linearity1

Linearity

  • Diamond sc-HPHT

  • Coplanar contacts

  • Gold Contacts

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Response time

RESPONSE TIME

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Xuv diamond detectors

Time response and PPC

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Time response and ppc

Time response and PPC

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Time response and ppc1

Time response and PPC

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Time response and ppc2

Time response and PPC

@160 nm

  • sc-HPHT

  • 1 V/μm

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Photoconductive gain

PHOTOCONDUCTIVE GAIN

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Photoconductive gain1

Photoconductive Gain

  • Diamond sc-CVD

  • Coplanar contacts

  • Gold contacts

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Photoconductive gain2

Photoconductive Gain

De Sio et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005

Single pixel device

  • Material from LIMHP-CNRS

  • Device built and tested in Firenze

  • Single crystal CVD diamond

  • Free standing

  • Mechanically polished

  • Au electric contacts on both surfaces

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Duv electro optical performance1

DUV electro-optical performance

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Pixel array cross talk

Pixel array: cross talk

  • Pixel array characterization with 5 ns laser pulses at 215 nm (preliminary)

  • Three adjacent pixels of the array

  • Focusing of the laser beam on the pixel marked with *

  • Good spatial resolution (negligible cross-talk) and fast response times

  • Good sample homogeneity

  • Very good stability and reproducibility

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Single crystal and polycrystalline diamond based UV single pixel and pixels array devices can be fabricated

    • Low dark current values

    • High XUV sensitivity was observed

    • Good response times

    • No persistent photoconductivity

    • No pumping effects

    • Negligible cross-talk in pixel arrays

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Xuv diamond detectors

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


X ray

X-Ray

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


X ray detection

X-Ray detection

  • X-ray detection

  • Cu X-ray source 30kV

  • Fast response time (less than 0.2 s)

  • Good reproducibility

  • No persistent photocurrent

  • No memory effects

  • No Pumping effect

  • Good stability

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Response stability

Response stability

50 mins of simultaneous measurements with IC and diamond detector at 10 KeV. Differences are below 0.4% during the whole measurement.

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Linearity with x ray intensity

Linearity with X ray intensity

HPHT - SRS

Loosen correlation between IC and diamond response

Poly N doped - Stanford

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Linearity with x ray intensity1

Linearity with X ray intensity

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


K edge fe absorption

K edge Fe Absorption

HPHT 1b Diamond

Polycrystalline Diamond N doped

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Exafs signal

EXAFS Signal

Polycrystalline Diamond N doped

HPHT 1b Diamond

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Fourier analysis vs theoretical

Fourier Analysis Vs Theoretical

Polycrystalline Diamond N doped

HPHT 1b Diamond

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


Exafs results

EXAFS Results

HPHT - 1b

Poly N doped

Good agreement between IC and Diamond detector and with the theoretical data

Antonio De Sio WUTA 2008


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