Methods of ventilation
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Methods of Ventilation. Mouth to mask Two-person BVM device Flow restricted, oxygen powered device One-person BVM device. Bag-valve-mask. Rate of Artificial Ventilations. Adult — 1 breath every 5 seconds Children — 1 breath every 3 seconds Infants — 1 breath every 3 seconds.

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Methods of ventilation
Methods of Ventilation

  • Mouth to mask

  • Two-person BVM device

  • Flow restricted, oxygen powered device

  • One-person BVM device

Bag-valve-mask


Rate of artificial ventilations
Rate of Artificial Ventilations

Adult — 1 breath every 5 seconds

Children — 1 breath every 3 seconds

Infants — 1 breath every 3 seconds

Bag-valve-mask


Mouth to mask technique 1 of 2
Mouth-to-Mask Technique (1 of 2)

  • Kneel at patient’s head and open airway.

  • Place the mask on the patient’s face.

  • Take a deep breath and breathe into the patient for 1 1/2 to 2 seconds.

  • Remove your mouth and watch for patient’s chest to fall.



Bag valve mask device
Bag-Valve-Mask Device

  • Can deliver more than 90% oxygen

  • Delivers less tidal volume than mouth-to-mask

  • Requires practice to be proficient

  • May be used with advanced airways



Two person bvm technique 1 of 2
Two-Person BVM Technique (1 of 2)

  • Insert an oral airway.

  • One caregiver maintains seal while the other delivers ventilations.

  • Place mask on patient’s face.

  • Squeeze bag to deliver ventilations.





Ongoing assessment of ventilation
Ongoing Assessment of Ventilation

  • Adequate Ventilation

    • Equal chest rise and fall

    • Ventilating at appropriate rate

    • Heart rate returns to normal

  • Inadequate Ventilation

    • Minimal or no chest rise and fall

    • Ventilations too fast or slow

    • Heart rate does not return to normal


Sellick maneuver
Sellick Maneuver

  • Use on unconscious patients to prevent gastric distention.

  • Place pressure on cricoid with thumb and index finger.


Gastric distention
Gastric Distention

  • Artificial ventilation fills stomach with air.

  • Occurs if ventilations are too forceful or too frequent or when airway is blocked

  • May cause patient to vomit


Stomas and tracheostomy tubes
Stomas and Tracheostomy Tubes

  • Ventilations are delivered through the stoma.

  • Attach BVM device to tube or use infant mask.

  • Stoma may need to be suctioned.


Causes of foreign body obstruction
Causes of Foreign Body Obstruction

  • Relaxation of the tongue

  • Vomited stomach contents

  • Blood clots, bone fragments, damaged tissue

  • Swelling caused by allergic reactions

  • Foreign objects


Recognizing an obstruction 1 of 2
Recognizing an Obstruction (1 of 2)

  • Obstruction may be partial or complete.

  • Is patient able to speak or cough?

  • If patient is unconscious, attempt to deliver artificial ventilation.


Removing an obstruction 2 of 2
Removing an Obstruction (2 of 2)

  • Perform Heimlich maneuver.

  • Use suction if needed.

  • If attempts to clear the airway are unsuccessful, transport rapidly.


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