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Cellular Reproduction. Section 1: Cellular Growth. Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis. Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation. Cellular Reproduction. Section 1. Cellular Growth. Ratio of Surface Area to Volume. Cellular Reproduction. Section 1. Cellular Growth.

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slide2

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1: Cellular Growth

Section2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation

slide3

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Cellular Growth

Ratio of Surface Area to Volume

slide4

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Cellular Growth

  • As the cell grows, its volume increases much more rapidly than the surface area.
  • The cell might have difficulty supplying nutrients and expelling enough waste products.
slide5

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Cellular Growth

Transport of Substances

  • Substances move by diffusion or by motor proteins.
  • Diffusion over large distances is slow and inefficient.
  • Small cells maintain more efficient transport systems.
slide6

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Cellular Growth

Cellular Communications

  • The need for signaling proteins to move throughout the cell also limits cell size.
  • Cell size affects the ability of the cell to communicate instructions for cellular functions.
slide7

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Cellular Growth

The Cell Cycle

  • Cell division prevents the cell from becoming too large.
  • It also is the way the cell reproduces so that you grow and heal certain injuries.
  • Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and dividing called the cell cycle.
slide8

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Cellular Growth

  • Interphase is the stage during which the cell grows, carries out cellular functions, and replicates.
  • Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell’s nucleus and nuclear material divide.
  • Cytokinesisis the method by which a cell’s cytoplasm divides, creating a new cell.
slide9

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Cellular Growth

The Stages of Interphase

  • The first stage of interphase, G1
  • The cell is growing, carrying out normal cell functions, and preparing to replicate DNA.
slide10

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Cellular Growth

The Second Stage of Interphase, S

  • The cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division.
slide11

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Cellular Growth

The Third Stage of Interphase, G2

  • The cell prepares for the division of its nucleus.
slide12

Cellular Reproduction

Section 2

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

The Stages of Mitosis

  • Prophase
  • The cell’s chromatin tightens.
  • Sister chromatids are attached at the centromere.
  • Spindle fibers form in the cytoplasm.
slide13

Cellular Reproduction

Section 2

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

  • The nuclear envelope seems to disappear.
  • Spindle fibers attach to the sister chromatids.
slide14

Cellular Reproduction

Section 2

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Metaphase

  • Sister chromatids are pulled along the spindle apparatus toward the center of the cell.
  • They line up in the middle of the cell.
slide15

Cellular Reproduction

Section 2

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Anaphase

  • The microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to shorten.
  • The sister chromatids separate.
  • The chromosomes move toward the poles of the cell.
slide16

Cellular Reproduction

Section 2

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Telophase

  • The chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax.
  • Two new nuclear membranes begin to form and the nucleoli reappear.
  • The spindle apparatus disassembles.
slide17

Cellular Reproduction

Section 2

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

  • In animal cells, microfilaments constrict, or pinch, the cytoplasm.
  • In plant cells, a new structure, called a cell plate, forms.
slide19

Cellular Reproduction

Section 3

Cell Cycle Regulation

Normal Cell Cycle

  • Different cyclin/CDK combinations signal other activities, including DNA replication, protein synthesis, and nuclear division throughout the cell cycle.
slide20

Cellular Reproduction

Section 3

Cell Cycle Regulation

Quality Control Checkpoints

  • The cell cycle has built-in checkpoints that monitor the cycle and can stop it if something goes wrong.
  • Spindle checkpoints also have been identified in mitosis.
slide21

Cellular Reproduction

  • Cancer cells can kill an organism by crowding out normal

cells, resulting in the loss of tissue function.

Section 3

Cell Cycle Regulation

Abnormal Cell Cycle: Cancer

  • Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells.
slide22

Cellular Reproduction

Section 3

Cell Cycle Regulation

Causes of Cancer

  • The changes that occur in the regulation of cell growth and division of cancer cells are due to mutations.
  • Various environmental factors can affect the occurrence of cancer cells.
slide23

Cellular Reproduction

Section 3

Cell Cycle Regulation

Apoptosis

  • Programmed cell death
  • Cells going through apoptosis actually shrink and shrivel in a controlled process.
slide24

Cellular Reproduction

Section 3

Cell Cycle Regulation

Stem Cells

  • Unspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions
slide25

Cellular Reproduction

Section 3

Cell Cycle Regulation

Embryonic Stem Cells

  • After fertilization, the resulting mass of cells divides repeatedly until there are about 100–150 cells. These cells have not become specialized.
slide26

Cellular Reproduction

Section 3

Cell Cycle Regulation

Adult Stem Cells

  • Found in various tissues in the body and might be used to maintain and repair the same kind of tissue
  • Less controversial because the adult stem cells can be obtained with the consent of their donor

Cellular Reproduction

slide27

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter

Chapter Resource Menu

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Formative Test Questions

Chapter Assessment Questions

Standardized Test Practice

connected.mcgraw-hill.com

Glencoe Biology Transparencies

Image Bank

Vocabulary

Animation

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.

cdq 1

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

CDQ 1

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Which is the first phase of mitosis?

interphase

prophase

metaphase

telophase

cdq 2

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

CDQ 2

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

During what phase do the sister chromatids

line up in the middle of the cell?

interphase

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

cdq 3

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

CDQ 3

Chapter Diagnostic Questions

Which is not a phase of the cell cycle?

cytokinesis

interphase

apoptosis

mitosis

slide31

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

FQ 1

Section 1Formative Questions

Which can more efficiently supply nutrients and

expel waste products?

larger cells

smaller cells

cells with lower surface area to volume ratio

cells shaped like a cube

slide32

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

FQ 2

Section 1 Formative Questions

At what stage does a cell spend most of

its life?

cytokinesis

interphase

mitosis

synthesis

slide33

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

FQ 3

Section 1Formative Questions

What happens in the cell during cytokinesis?

The cell grows and carries out normal functions.

The cell copies its DNA and forms chromosomes.

The cell’s nucleus and nuclear material divide.

The cell’s cytoplasm divides.

slide34

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

FQ 4

Section 2 Formative Questions

In what stage of the cell cycle does the

cell’s replicated genetic material separate?

cytokinesis

interphase

mitosis

prophase

slide35

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

FQ 5

Section 2Formative Questions

Which diagram shows anaphase?

slide36

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

Chapter

FQ 6

Section 2Formative Questions

At the end of mitosis the nuclear material is

divided and two new cells have formed.

true

false

slide37

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

FQ 7

Section 3Formative Questions

What are the “key and ignition” that start the

various activities in the cell cycle?

chromatin and chromosomes

cyclin and CDKs

microtubules and spindle fibers

protein and ribosomes

slide38

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

FQ 8

Section 3Formative Questions

Which of these cancer-causing substances or

agents is impossible to avoid completely?

chemicals such as asbestos

food and drinks that the FDA warns may contain carcinogens

tobacco and second-hand smoke

ultraviolet radiation from the Sun

slide39

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

FQ 9

Section 3Formative Questions

What is the term for the programmed death

of cells that are damaged beyond repair or

have harmful changes in their DNA?

apoptosis

carcinogens

cytokinesis

mitosis

fq 10

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

FQ 10

Section 3Formative Questions

Which cells are not locked into becoming

one particular kind of cell and are capable

of developing into specialized tissues?

apoptotic cells

cancer cells

prokaryotic cells

stem cells

caq 1

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

CAQ 1

Chapter Assessment Questions

This cell has completed what stage of mitosis?

anaphase

interphase

metaphase

telophase

caq 2

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

CAQ 2

Chapter Assessment Questions

What term is used to describe programmed

cell death?

apoptosis

anaphase

necrosis

cyclins

caq 3

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

CAQ 3

Chapter Assessment Questions

What is the role of cyclins in a cell?

to control the movement of microtubules

to signal for the cell to divide

to stimulate the breakdown of the nuclear membrane

to cause the nucleolus to disappear

stp 1

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

C

B

A

Chapter

STP 1

Standardized Test Practice

Which cell has the lowest ratio of surface area

to volume?

stp 2

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

STP 2

Standardized Test Practice

At what stage of interphase does the cell take inventory and make sure it is ready for the division of its nucleus?

G1

S

G2

M

stp 3

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

STP 3

Standardized Test Practice

Which occurs in plant cells but not animal cells

during the cell cycle?

formation of a cell plate

formation of microtubules

formation of a cleavage furrow at the equator of the cell

movement of chromosomes to the poles of the cell

stp 4

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

Chapter

STP 4

Standardized Test Practice

Multiple changes in DNA are required to change an abnormal cell into a cancer cell.

true

false

stp 5

Cellular Reproduction

A

B

C

D

Chapter

STP 5

Standardized Test Practice

Which is not a condition that can result in cancer?

a failure in the control mechanisms that regulate the cell cycle

a failure in the repair systems that fix changes or damage to DNA

a failure of the spindle fibers to move chromosomes during mitosis

mutations or changes in segments of DNA that control protein production

slide49

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter

Glencoe Biology Transparencies

slide50

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter

Image Bank

slide51

Cellular Reproduction

Section 1

Vocabulary

Section 1

cell cycle

interphase

mitosis

cytokinesis

chromosome

chromatin

slide52

Cellular Reproduction

Section 2

Vocabulary

Section 2

prophase

sister chromatid

centromere

spindle apparatus

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

slide53

Cellular Reproduction

Section 3

Vocabulary

Section 3

cyclin

cyclin-dependent kinase

cancer

apoptosis

stem cell

slide54

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter

Animation

  • Visualizing the Cell Cycle
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