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The Global Electrical Circuit: A Review. Earle Williams MIT International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity Beijing, China August 2007. Outline - Global Circuit. The two Global Circuits : How are they different? Carnegie Curve vs Thunder Area

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The global electrical circuit a review

The Global Electrical Circuit: A Review

Earle Williams

MIT

International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

Beijing, China

August 2007


Outline global circuit
Outline - Global Circuit

The two Global Circuits : How are they different?

Carnegie Curve vs Thunder Area

Robustness of Carnegie Curve for individual days

Effects of Bomb tests in the 50s and 60s

Long-term variations

Response of global circuit to global change



Classical analysis of the global electrical circuit
Classical Analysis of the Global Electrical Circuit

Carnegie Curve

Thunder Area


Wilson 1920
Wilson (1920)

"Thunderclouds and shower clouds" are the sources for the global current.


A common assertion thunderstorms are the batteries for the global circuit
A common Assertion: Thunderstorms are the batteries for the Global Circuit

Wallace et Hobbs (1977)

Williams ( 1988)

Blakeslee et al (1989)

Vonnegut (1991)

Bering et al (1998)

Rycroft at al (2000)

Reddell et al (2004)

Holzworth et al (2005)

Hayakawa et al (2006)

Kartalev et al (2005)

Nickolaenko et al (2006)

WILSON (1920) DID NOT MAKE THIS CLAIM


Distinctions in the Global Circuit

two Global Circuits


The global balance sheet at earth s surface
The Global Balance Sheet Global Circuit(at Earth’s surface)

Fine Weather Current + 60 C

Precipitation + 30 C

Lightning - 20 C

Point Discharge - 100 C

Wormell (1930,1953)



Global lightning is more volatile than the dc global circuit
Global Lightning is more Volatile than the DC Global Circuit Global Circuit

Diurnal Time Scale

Carnegie Curve

OTD Analysis

Annual Time Scale

Ionospheric Potential

OTD Analysis


Two hypotheses for american dominance over africa in the carnegie curve
Two hypotheses for American Dominance over Africa in the Carnegie Curve

Current control by position of magnetic dip

equator (Kartalev et al, 2006).

Electrified shower curves in South America

dominate over Africa.


Measurements (Burns et al, 2005) and Carnegie CurvePredictions (Kartalev et al, 2006) for Seasonal Variations in the Carnegie Curve


African lightning exceeds south american lightning
African Lightning Exceeds Carnegie CurveSouth American Lightning

Williams and

Sátori (2004)


Carnegie curve on individual days
Carnegie Curve on Individual Days ? Carnegie Curve

Ralph Markson : We should get the get the

same result every day.

Bob Holzworth : We can have factor-of-two

fluctuations from one

day to the next.


Diurnal variations of ionospheric potential
Diurnal Variations of Ionospheric Potential Carnegie Curve

Note similarity with behavior of ‘carnegie curve’

(Markson et al, 1999)


Simultaneously recorded electric field at two widely separated locations
Simultaneously Recorded Electric Field at Two Widely Separated Locations

Holzworth et al (1984)


Electric field at south pole observatory reddell et al 2004
Electric Field at South Pole Observatory Separated Locations(Reddell et al, 2004)





Long term variations in electric field at two sites in england
Long-Term Variations in Electric Field Separated Locationsat Two Sites in England

1955

1966

1955

1966



Ionospheric Potential and Separated Locations

Stratospheric Burden of Radioactive Strontium



Downward trends at nagycenk hungary and eskdalemuir uk
Downward Trends at Nagycenk (Hungary) and Eskdalemuir (UK) Separated Locations

Märcz and Harrison (2003)

Harrison (2003)


Evidence for reduced pollution in the uk in the 20 th century
Evidence for Reduced Pollution in the UK in the 20 Separated Locationsth Century

McIntosh (1957) Decline in smoke concentration at

Eskdalemuir

Novakov et al (2003) Decline in black soot production

from 1920 onward

Reduced Pollution Enhanced Conductivity

Reduced Electric Field



Stability of electric field at kennedy space center
Stability of Electric Field Separated Locationsat Kennedy Space Center

(Halstead Harrison, GRL 2006)


Air earth current record at kew
Air Earth current record at Kew Separated Locations

From Harrison and Ingram, 2005

Air–earth current measurements at Kew, London, 1909–1979R.G. Harrison,T, W.J. Ingramb.  Atmospheric Research 76 (2005) 49–64



Global circuit response Separated Locations

to Global warming?



Anticipated response of global circuit to global warming
Anticipated Response of Global Circuit to Global Warming Separated Locations

Anticipated sensitivity 10% per 1°C

Measured global warming (tropics) 0.1°c per decade

  • Anticipated rate of increase 1% per decade

    This may go undetected in a short record


Temperature and thunder days fairbanks ak
Temperature and Thunder Days, Separated LocationsFairbanks, AK

62

Summer Average Temperatures,

Fairbanks, AK 1950 - 2005

60

58

Temperature (°F)

56

54

52

20

Summer Thunder Days,

Fairbanks, AK

15

Number of

Thunder Days

10

5

0

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010


Conclusions

  • The ‘DC’ and ‘AC’ Global Circuits are correlated, but do not track each other identically, for well established reasons.

  • Electrified shower clouds (Wilson, 1920) are fundamental in understanding differences between the ‘DC’ and ‘AC’ Global Circuits.

  • Nuclear weapons tests in the 1950-60’s appear to have had both local and global effects on the Global Circuit.

  • No substantive evidence exists for a long-term decline in the Global Circuit.

  • The absence of a clear upward trend in the Global Circuit is not inconsistent with the documented upward trend in temperature.

CONCLUSIONS


Schumann resonance diurnal variations h ew1
Schumann Resonance Diurnal Variations H but do not track each other identically, for well established reasons.EW


Schumann resonance diurnal variations h ns1
Schumann Resonance Diurnal Variations H but do not track each other identically, for well established reasons.NS


Ionospheric Potential but do not track each other identically, for well established reasons.


Simpson s 1905 diurnal variations in lapland
Simpson’s (1905) Diurnal Variations but do not track each other identically, for well established reasons.in Lapland

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 UT


14 Years of Schumann Resonance Intensity but do not track each other identically, for well established reasons.


Simpson in lapland 1904
Simpson in Lapland 1904 but do not track each other identically, for well established reasons.


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