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EVIDENCE FOR THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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EVIDENCE FOR THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST. Forensic evidence: The crucifixion, death and entombment Eyewitness testimony: Personal witnesses to death and life Disinterested third party witnesses: Unwitting and unwilling testimony. EVIDENCE FOR THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST.

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EVIDENCE FOR THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST

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EVIDENCE FOR THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST

  • Forensic evidence: The crucifixion, death and entombment

  • Eyewitness testimony: Personal witnesses to death and life

  • Disinterested third party witnesses: Unwitting and unwilling testimony


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EVIDENCE FOR THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST

  • The certainty of Christ’s death

  • The security of the entombment

  • The absence of Christ from the tomb

  • The eyewitness accounts of the living Christ

  • The desparation of hostile explanations


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THE CRUCIFIXION – WITNESS TO CERTAIN DEATH

John 19:33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. 34 But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and blood and water flowed out immediately.35 And the person who saw it has testified (and his testimony is true, and he knows that he is telling the truth), so that you also may believe.


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THE CRUCIFIXION – WITNESS TO CERTAIN DEATH

‘But even before he dies, the hypovolemic shock would cause a sustained rapid heart rate that would have contributed to heart failure, resulting in the collection of fluid in the membrane around the heart, called a pericardial effusion, as well as around the lungs, which is called a pleural effusion. This is significant because the New Testament records that the Roman soldier drove a spear into Jesus’ side, apparently through the right lung and into the heart, resulting in the outpouring of blood and water. This flow of blood and water would have actually been the pericardial effusion and the pleural effusion. The New Testament writer would have had no idea why he saw both blood and a clear fluid come out, yet his description is consistent with modern medical knowledge.’Dr Alexander Methrell, as quoted by Lee Strobel, ‘The Case For Christ, 1998


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THE CRUCIFIXION – WITNESS TO CERTAIN DEATH

‘Jesus of Nazareth underwent Jewish and Roman trials, was flogged, and was sentenced to death by crucifixion. The scourging produced deep stripelike lacerations and appreciable blood loss, and it probably set the stage for hypovolemic shock, as evidenced by the fact that Jesus was too weakened to carry the crossbar (patibulum) to Golgotha. …The major pathophysiologic effect of crucifixion was an interference with normal respirations.Accordingly death resulted primarily from hypovolemic shock and exhaustion asphyxia. Jesus' death was ensured by the thrust of a soldier's spear into his side. Modern medical interpretation of the historical evidence indicate that Jesus was dead when taken down from the cross.’Article ‘On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ’, Journal of the American Medical Association, March 21, abstract, 1986


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THE CRUCIFIXION – WITNESS TO CERTAIN DEATH

‘Clearly, the weight of historical and medical evidence indicates that Jesus was dead before the wound to his side was inflicted and supports the traditional view that the spear, thrust between his right ribs, probably perforated not only the right lung but also the pericardium and heart and thereby ensured his death. Accordingly, interpretations based on the assumption that Jesus did not die on the cross appear to be at odds with modern medical knowledge.’Article ‘On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ’, Journal of the American Medical Association, March 21, page 1463, 1986


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THE PAGAN TESTIMONY – WITNESS TO TRUTH

‘But not all the relief that could come from man, not all the bounties that the prince could bestow, nor all the atonements which could be presented to the gods, availed to relieve Nero from the infamy of being believed to have ordered the conflagration, the fire of Rome. Hence to suppress the rumor, he falsely charged with the guilt, and punished Christians, who were hated for their enormities. Christus, the founder of the name, was put to death by Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea in the reign of Tiberius: but the pernicious superstition, repressed for a time broke out again, not only through Judea, where the mischief originated, but through the city of Rome also, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their center and become popular.’Cornelius Tacitus, Roman historian, ‘Annals’ 15.44, 115 AD


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THE PAGAN TESTIMONY – WITNESS TO TRUTH

‘The present writer believes that the most persuasive case is made by those who maintain that Tacitus made use of a first century Roman document concerning the nature and status of the Christian religion. As to the reliability of that source, following normal historical practice, it is prudently assumed to be accurate until demonstrated otherwise. The reference from Tacitus constitutes prima facie evidence for the historicity of Jesus.’Peter Kirby, ex-Christian skeptic, article ‘Cornelius Tacitus’, 2003


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THE SECURITY OF THE ENTOMBMENT

John 19:38 After this, Joseph of Arimathea, a disciple of Jesus (but secretly, because he feared the Jewish leaders), asked Pilate if he could remove the body of Jesus. Pilate gave him permission, so he went and took the body away.39 Nicodemus, the man who had previously come to Jesus at night, accompanied Joseph, carrying a mixture of myrrh and aloes weighing about seventy-five pounds.40 Then they took Jesus’ body and wrapped it, with the aromatic spices, in strips of linen cloth according to Jewish burial customs.41 Now at the place where Jesus was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden was a new tomb where no one had yet been buried.42 And so, because it was the Jewish day of preparation and the tomb was nearby,they placed Jesus’ body there.


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THE SECURITY OF THE ENTOMBMENT

‘They put carcasses, graves, and tanners, fifty cubits from a city.’Mishnah Bava Bathra, column 2, section 9, compiled 3rd century AD‘They may not dig pits, nor graves, on a solemn feast day.’Mishnah Moed Katon, column 1, section 6, compiled 3rd century AD‘In an emergency, however, or on Sabbath Eve, or if rain is coming down on the bier, he should hasten the burial and not prolong the funeral.’Talmud Babylon, Semahot 9.9, compiled 6th century AD


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THE SECURITY OF THE ENTOMBMENT

Matthew 27:59 Joseph took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,60 and placed it in his own new tomb that he had cut in the rock.Then he rolled a great stone across the entrance of the tomb and went away.62 The next day (which is after the day of preparation) the chief priests and the Pharisees assembled before Pilate63 and said, “Sir, we remember that while that deceiver was still alive he said, ‘After three days I will rise again.’64 So give orders to secure the tomb until the third day. Otherwise his disciples may come and steal his body and say to the people, ‘He has been raised from the dead,’ and the last deception will be worse than the first.”65 Pilate said to them, “Take a guard of soldiers. Go and make it as secure as you can.”66 So they went with the soldiers of the guard and made the tomb secure by sealing the stone.


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THE SECURITY OF THE ENTOMBMENT

Mark 16:1 When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought aromatic spices so that they might go and anoint him.2 And very early on the first day of the week, at sunrise, they went to the tomb.3 They had been asking each other, “Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance to the tomb?”


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THE SECURITY OF THE ENTOMBMENT

‘One may go out to the cemetery for three days to inspect the dead for a sign of life, without fear that this smacks of heathen practice. For it happened that a man was inspected after three days, and he went on to live twenty-five years; still another went on to have five children and died later.’Talmud Babylon, Semahot 8.1, compiled 6th century AD


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THE UNLIKELIHOOD OF SURVIVAL AND ESCAPE

‘[{F x A x [(B x D) + ([1 - B] x C)]} survival unspeared +{(1 - F) x A x E x [(B x D) + ([1 - B] x C)]}] survival speared x[(G x H) + ([1 - G] x [(K x H) + {(1 - K) x L}])] escape x[1 - {(1 - [M x Q]) x (1 - N) x (1 - P)}] story believed =[{0.75 x 0.33 x [(0.01 x 0.50) + ([1 - 0.01] x 0.10)]} +{(1 - 0.75) x 0.33 x 0.50 x [(0.01 x 0.50) + ([1 - 0.01] x 0.10)]}] x[(0.30 x 0.50) + ([1 - 0.30] x [(0.80 x 0.50) + {(1 - 0.80) x 0.01}])] x[1 - {(1 - [0.01 x 0.25]) x (1 - 0.10) x (1 - 0.50)}] =(0.0257 +0.00429) x0.432 x 0.5511 =0.714 = 0.7%’


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THE EMPTY TOMB – SILENT WITNESS TO LIFE

Luke 24:1 Now on the first day of the week, at early dawn, the women went to the tomb, taking the aromatic spices they had prepared.2 They found that the stone had been rolled away from the tomb,3 but when they went in, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus.12 But Peter got up and ran to the tomb. He bent down and saw only the strips of linen cloth; then he went home, wondering what had happened.


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THE EMPTY TOMB – SILENT WITNESS TO LIFE

John 20:1 Now very early on the first day of the week, while it was still dark, Mary Magdalene came to the tomb and saw that the stone had been moved away from the entrance. 2 So she went running to Simon Peter and the other disciple whom Jesus loved and told them, “They have taken the Lord from the tomb, and we don’t know where they have put him!”3 Then Peter and the other disciple set out to go to the tomb.4 The two were running together, but the other disciple ran faster than Peter and reached the tomb first.5 He bent down and saw the strips of linen cloth lying there, but he did not go in. 6 Then Simon Peter, who had been following him, arrived and went right into the tomb. He saw the strips of linen cloth lying there,7 and the face cloth, which had been around Jesus’ head, not lying with the strips of linen cloth but rolled up in a place by itself.


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THE EMPTY TOMB – SILENT WITNESS TO LIFE

  • The tomb was guardedHow were the guards overcome?

  • The tomb was sealedHow was it unsealed?

  • The stone was in front of the tombWho moved the stone?


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THE EMPTY TOMB – SILENT WITNESS TO LIFE

Matthew 27:59 Joseph took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,60 and placed it in his own new tomb that he had cut in the rock.Then he rolled a great stone across the entrance of the tomb and went away.62 The next day (which is after the day of preparation) the chief priests and the Pharisees assembled before Pilate63 and said, “Sir, we remember that while that deceiver was still alive he said, ‘After three days I will rise again.’64 So give orders to secure the tomb until the third day. Otherwise his disciples may come and steal his body and say to the people, ‘He has been raised from the dead,’ and the last deception will be worse than the first.”65 Pilate said to them, “Take a guard of soldiers. Go and make it as secure as you can.”66 So they went with the soldiers of the guard and made the tomb secure by sealing the stone.


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THE EMPTY TOMB – SILENT WITNESS TO LIFE

  • The body was in the tomb on the first day(Matthew 27:59-60)

  • The Jewish leaders confirmed this on the second day(Matthew 27:61-66)

  • The Jewish leaders sealed the body in the tomb(Matthew 27:65-66)


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THE EMPTY TOMB – SILENT WITNESS TO LIFE

  • On the third day, the tomb was emptyIt had been there on day 2, but was gone by morning of day 3

  • The guards, seal, and stone had been circumventedHow did this happen between day 2 and the morning of day 3?

  • The body was never recoveredWho took it, and where did they take it?


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THE EMPTY TOMB – SILENT WITNESS TO LIFE

  • Did the disciples take the body?If so, when did they take it, and how?

  • Was the empty tomb the wrong one?How could it be mistaken, and why not point out the real tomb?

  • Was the body still in its original tomb?Then why was it never presented by the Jewish rulers?


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THE EYEWITNESSES – FIRST HAND TESTIMONY

Matthew 28:8 So they left the tomb quickly, with fear and great joy, and ran to tell his disciples. 29 But Jesus met them, saying, “Greetings!” They came to him, held on to his feet and worshiped him.10 Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid. Go and tell my brothers to go to Galilee. They will see me there.” 16 So the eleven disciples went to Galilee to the mountain Jesus had designated. 17 When they saw him, they worshiped him, but some doubted.


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THE EYEWITNESSES – FIRST HAND TESTIMONY

Mark 16:9 Early on the first day of the week, after he arose, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had driven out seven demons.12 After this he appeared in a different form to two of them while they were on their way to the country.14 Then he appeared to the eleven themselves, while they were eating, and he rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those who had seen him resurrected.


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THE EYEWITNESSES – FIRST HAND TESTIMONY

Luke 24:36 While they were saying these things, Jesus himself stood among them and said to them, “Peace be with you.”37 But they were startled and terrified, thinking they saw a ghost.38 Then he said to them, “Why are you frightened, and why do doubts arise in your hearts?39 Look at my hands and my feet; it’s me! Touch me and see; a ghost does not have flesh and bones like you see I have.”40 When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.41 And while they still could not believe it (because of their joy) and were amazed, he said to them, “Do you have anything here to eat?”42 So they gave him a piece of broiled fish,43 and he took it and ate it in front of them.


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THE EYEWITNESSES – FIRST HAND TESTIMONY

John 20:30 Now Jesus performed many other miraculous signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not recorded in this book.31 But these are recorded so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.John 21:1 After this Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples by the Sea of Tiberias.


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THE EYEWITNESSES – FIRST HAND TESTIMONY

Acts 1:1 I wrote the former account, Theophilus, about all that Jesus began to do and teach 2 until the day he was taken up to heaven, after he had given orders by the Holy Spirit to the apostles he had chosen.3 To the same apostles also, after his suffering, he presented himself alive with many convincing proofs. He was seen by them over a forty-day period and spoke about matters concerning the kingdom of God.


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THE EYEWITNESSES – FIRST HAND TESTIMONY

Acts 2:29 “Brothers, I can speak confidently to you about our forefather David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.30 So then, because he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendantson his throne, 31 David by foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was neither abandoned to Hades, nor did his body experiencedecay.32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it.


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THE EYEWITNESSES – FIRST HAND TESTIMONY

1 Corinthians 15:3 For I passed on to you as of first importance what I also received—that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures,4 and that he was buried, and that he was raised on the third day according to the scriptures,5 and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.6 Then he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep.7 Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles.8 Last of all, as though to one born at the wrong time, he appeared to me also.


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HOSTILE JEWISH WRITINGS – WITNESS TO TRUTH

‘When (Rabbi Eliezer) came to his house, his disciples gathered round to comfort him. But he would not take comfort.Rabbi Aqiba said to him: “Rabbi, let me tell you one word of what you taught me!”(Rabbi Eliezer) said to him: “Speak!”(Aqiba) said to him: “Perhaps some heresy came to you and pleased you; and you were arrested for that.”(Rabbi Eliezer) said to him: “Aqiba, you have reminded me! Once I was walking in the upper market at Sepphoris and I encountered one of the disciples of Jesus the Nazarene.”’Talmud Babylon, Aboda Zara 16b-17a, compiled 6th century AD


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HOSTILE JEWISH WRITINGS – WITNESS TO TRUTH

‘A heretic [Jewish ‘min’– a Christian] said to Rabbi cHanina (bar Hama):“Have you heard how old Balaam was (when he died)?”(Hanina) said to him:“The record does not record (it). But (I would say) he was 33 or 34 years old from the text: ‘Men of blood and frauds shall not live out half their days’ (Ps 55:23).”(The heretic) said to him:“What you say is right! I myself have examine the account of Balaam and it is written:“Balaam the lame was 33 years old, when he was killed by Phineas the Robber.”’Talmud Babylon, Sanhedrin 106b, compiled 6th century AD


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HOSTILE JEWISH WRITINGS – WITNESS TO TRUTH

‘It is taught:They hanged Yehsu [Jesus] on the eve of Passover.Now a crier went forth for forty days before this (saying):‘He goes forth to be stoned because he practiced magic and stirred up Israel to apostasy. Let anyone who knows anything in his favor come forward and speak up for him!’ But they found nothing in his favor and they hanged him on the eve of Passover.’Talmud Babylon, Sanhedrin 43a, compiled 6th century AD‘A son of Rabbi Joshua ben Levi,  swallowed something hurtful; and one came and whispered to him in the name of Jesus, the son of Pandira, and he did well.’Talmud Jerusalem, Sabbat, folio 14.4, compiled 6th century AD


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HOSTILE JEWISH WRITINGS – WITNESS TO TRUTH

‘There is another Jewish hostile manuscript called Toledoth Jeshu. This manuscript does not refer to Jesus only, but it also relates to us a fictitious story about what happened to his body after His death. Its author claimed that Jesus' disciples plotted to steal Christ's body, but a certain gardener, whose name was Judas, discovered the conspiracy. He came secretly and removed the body from Joseph's tomb and relocated it in a newly-dug grave. When the disciples came to the original tomb and found it empty, they proclaimed that He had risen from the dead. Soon after, the Jewish leaders also approached Joseph's tomb and found it empty. The gardener then took them to the newly dug grave and showed them Jesus' body.’Faris al-Qayrawani, ‘Was Christ Really Crucified?’, page 48, 1997


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HOSTILE JEWISH WRITINGS – WITNESS TO TRUTH

‘Though this tradition was not compiled before the fifth century A.D., it undoubtedly echoed an earlier Jewish tradition that was widespread among the Jewish circles after the resurrection of Christ (Matthew 28:11-15). This manuscript, despite its hostility to Christianity, is strong evidence for Christ's crucifixion, death and resurrection, because it is the testimony of an avenging foe.’Faris al-Qayrawani, ‘Was Christ Really Crucified?’, page 48, 1997


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NOTABLE FEATURES OF JEWISH APOLOGETICS

  • Jesus’ existence and rabbinical status is acknowledged as fact(Talmud Babylon, Aboda Zara 16b-17a)

  • Jesus’ teachings and miracles are acknowledged as fact(Talmud Babylon, Sanhedrin 43a)

  • Jesus’ trial, and his sentence by Pilate is acknowledged as fact(Talmud Babylon, Sanhedrin 43a, 106b)


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NOTABLE FEATURES OF JEWISH APOLOGETICS

  • Jesus’ death by crucifixion during Passover is acknowledged as fact(Talmud Babylon, Sanhedrin 43a)

  • Jesus’ entombment – and the empty tomb – are acknowledged as fact(Toledoth Jeshu)

  • Healing in the name of Jesus is acknowledged as fact(Talmud Jerusalem, Sabbat, folio 14.4)


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