Interpretation of cultural artifacts
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 51

Interpretation of Cultural Artifacts PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 61 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Interpretation of Cultural Artifacts. A Hermeneutical Square. The Artifact and the World[s] of the Artifact The Fabricator[s] and the World[s] of the Fabricator[s] The Engager[s] and the World[s] of the Engager[s] The Referent[s] of the Artifact and the World[s] of the Referent[s].

Download Presentation

Interpretation of Cultural Artifacts

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

Interpretation of Cultural Artifacts


A hermeneutical square

A Hermeneutical Square

  • The Artifact and the World[s] of the Artifact

  • The Fabricator[s] and the World[s] of the Fabricator[s]

  • The Engager[s] and the World[s] of the Engager[s]

  • The Referent[s] of the Artifact and the World[s] of the Referent[s]


Analyzing the artifact neutral level analysis

Analyzing the Artifact:Neutral Level Analysis

  • Bracket the processes by which the artifact came into being

  • Bracket the processes by which the artifact is received and interpreted

  • Generate categories to account for the distinctive features of the artifact


Neutral level analysis music

Neutral Level Analysis: Music

  • Analysis of “notes”

    • Pitch

    • Volume

    • Duration

    • Timbre

  • Analysis of combination of “notes”

    • Scale/Mode

    • Texture

    • Form


Neutral level analysis visual art

Neutral Level Analysis: Visual Art

  • Analysis of 2-dimensional art

    • Medium/Media

    • Size

    • Color

    • Imagery (Contour Lines / Forms)

    • Compositional Structures and Design

  • Analysis of 3-dimensional art

    • Medium/Media

    • Size

    • Color

    • Imagery (Edges / Shapes)

    • Compositional Structures and Design


Neutral level analysis literature

Neutral Level Analysis: Literature

  • Fiction

    • Plot

    • Character

    • Foreshadowing

    • Setting/Atmosphere

    • Symbolism

    • Point of View


Neutral level analysis literature1

Neutral Level Analysis: Literature

  • Poetry

    • Speaker/Poet

    • Figurative Language (metaphor/simile/symbol)

    • Structure

    • Rhythm and Versification


Neutral level analysis literature2

Neutral Level Analysis: Literature

  • Sermon

    • [Implied] Speaker

    • [Implied] Audience

    • “Teaching”: Information

    • “Delighting”: Literary Figures/Structure

    • “Moving”: Argumentation


Basic neutral level analysis of a text

Basic Neutral-Level Analysis of a Text

  • Language

  • Vocabulary

  • Grammar

  • Syntax

  • Progress of Thought


Example of a neutral level analysis of a text

Example of a Neutral-Level Analysis of a Text


Psalm 1 1

Psalm 1:1

  • ’ašerē ha’îš ’ašer

  • blessedness-of the-man who

  • lō’ hālēk bhē‘atsēt rešā‘îm

  • not he-walks in-counsel-of wicked-ones

  • Ûbederek tottā’îm lō’ ‘āmad

  • or-in-way-of sinners not he-stands

  • Ûbemôšab lētsîm lō’ yāšab

  • Or-in-seat-of ones-mocking not he-sits


Vocabulary and grammar

Vocabulary and Grammar

  • Nouns: blessedness / man / counsel / wicked ones / way / sinners / seat / ones mocking

  • Verbs: N.B. [no verb copula] / walks [not] / stands [not] / sits [not]

  • Article: the [man] // N.B. not applied to any other nouns

  • Relative Pronoun: who


Syntax

Syntax

  • Declarative sentence OR Exclamation?

  • 3 parallel clauses in content, but only two in form:

    • Doesn’t walk [progressive] in counsel of wicked ones

    • Doesn’t stand [progressive] in way of sinners

    • Doesn’t sit [progressive] in seat of ones mocking


Progress of thought

Progress of Thought

  • Verbs of motion: walk / stand / sit

  • Nouns of place (?): counsel / way / seat

  • Nouns of persons: wicked / sinners / mockers


Example of a neutral level analysis of a visual art object

Example of a Neutral-Level Analysis of a Visual Art Object


Basic neutral level analysis of a visual art work

Basic Neutral-Level Analysis of a Visual Art Work

  • Medium

  • Size

  • Color

  • Imagery

  • Composition and Design


Medium

Medium

  • As reproduced: .jpeg digitized photo

  • As fabricated: egg tempera on wood panel


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

Size

  • As reproduced: adjustable for computer screen or LCD projection

  • As fabricated: 43.4 x 28 cm


Color

Color

  • Orange: rectangular frame / upper and lower geometrical vegetation effect secondary frame / writing of title / writing in nimbus / ground for writing of the divine name / pages of the book

  • Gold: upper, sides, and lower geometrical vegetation effect secondary frame / tertiary rectangular frame and ground for image / clavus on the figure’s robe / book cover

  • Lighter Green: L and reverse L shapes of geometrical vegetation effect corners of secondary frame


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • Darker Green: Overdrape of figure

  • Lighter Brown: Face, neck, hands of figure

  • Darker Brown: Hair, flesh surrounding eyes, mustache, beard, underdrape of figure

  • Black: eyes


Imagery

Imagery

  • Single male figure, occupying more than half of the available space, depicted from the waist up on a gold ground, wearing a tunic with a clavus and a dark blue himation.

  • Presented frontally, gazing directly at the viewer.

  • Eyes symmetrically placed on either side of the top of an elongated nose placed above a small shut mouth; lower ear lobes appear on the same crossline as the nostrils. His upper hair falls in symmetrical waves, but his lower hair falls over his left shoulder.


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • Male figure gives a blessing with his right hand (thumb touching fourth and fifth fingers, second and third fingers crossed).

  • Male figure holds a closed book fastened with at least three bands in his left hand.

  • The light source comes from behind the figure (no shadows depicted).

  • On the arms of the cross on his halo are the Greek letters [H]O ŌN, and above his shoulders: [H]O PANTOKRATŌR. In the upper corners of the icon two red medallions with gold ornamentation and lettering contain the abbreviated forms I[ESOU]S CH[RISTO]S.


Composition and design

Composition and Design

  • Verticals: three frames, nimbus [omega], book, bottom part of clavus

  • Horizontals: three frames [N.B. non-symmetrical left secondary frame addition], nimbus [omicron / nu], book, eyes, ears, writing of [H]O PANTOKRATŌR, belt of himation

  • Diagonals: top of clavus, blessing hand, edges of book

  • Circles: medallions with I[ESOU]S CH[RISTO]S, nimbus, hair, eyes

  • Oval: head


Analyzing the fabricator s poietic analysis

Analyzing the Fabricator[s]: Poietic Analysis

  • Exploration of the processes by which a cultural artifact comes into existence

  • Artifact = “window into the past”

  • Material processes

    • Fabrication of the artifact

  • Non-material processes

    • Intention of the creator (inductive/deductive)

    • Role(s) of patron(s)

    • Cultural milieu (social class/economic group/gender)


Methods of poietic analysis

Methods of Poietic Analysis

  • Historical-critical methods:

    • Textual/Foundational Criticism: determining the original form of the artifact

    • Literary/Genre Criticism: determining the extent and composite character of the artifact

    • [Text: History of Oral Transmission: orality of text]

    • [Text: Redaction/Editing Criticism: citation of or allusion to other written texts]

    • Form/Setting Criticism: Sitz-im-Leben

    • Historical Criticism: relevant contexts


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • Historical psychology: Freudian source

  • Historical sociology: Marxian source

  • New archeology: Reconstructing material culture


Example of poietic analysis of a text matthew 1 22 23

Example of Poietic Analysis of a Text: Matthew 1:22-23

  • Textual Criticism: Matthew 1:22

  • Stephens 1550 Textus Receptustouto de olon gegonen ina plhrwqh to rhqen upo tou kuriou dia tou profhtou legontoV

  • Scrivener 1894 Textus Receptustouto de olon gegonen ina plhrwqh to rhqen upo tou kuriou dia tou profhtou legontoV

  • Byzantine Majoritytouto de olon gegonen ina plhrwqh to rhqen upo tou kuriou dia tou profhtou legontoV


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • Alexandriantouto de olon gegonen ina plhrwqh to rhqen upo kuriou dia tou profhtou legontoV

  • Hort and Westcotttouto de olon gegonen ina plhrwqh to rhqen upo kuriou dia tou profhtou legontoV


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • Textual Criticism: Matthew 1:23

  • Stephens 1550 Textus Receptusidou h parqenoV en gastri exei kai texetai uion kai kalesousin to onoma autou emmanouhl o estin meqermhneuomenon meq hmwn o qeoV

  • Scrivener 1894 Textus Receptusidou h parqenoV en gastri exei kai texetai uion kai kalesousin to onoma autou emmanouhl o estin meqermhneuomenon meq hmwn o qeoV


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • Byzantine Majorityidou h parqenoV en gastri exei kai texetai uion kai kalesousin to onoma autou emmanouhl o estin meqermhneuomenon meq hmwn o qeoV

  • Alexandrianidou h parqenoV en gastri exei kai texetai uion kai kalesousin to onoma autou emmanouhl o estin meqermhneuomenon meq hmwn o qeoV

  • Hort and Westcottidou h parqenoV en gastri exei kai texetai uion kai kalesousin to onoma autou emmanouhl o estin meqermhneuomenon meq hmwn o qeoV


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • “Literal” Translation of Matthew 1:22-23

  • All this took place in order to fulfill the word concerning [the] Lord through the prophet spoken:

  • “Behold, a virgin shall be with child and shall bring forth a son and they will call the name of him ‘Emmanuel’ that is, having been interpreted, ‘With us [is] God’.”


Genre criticism

Genre Criticism

  • Although attached to narrative of Matthew 1:18[b]-21, these verses belong to a literary genre characteristic of this gospel [used 10 times] which might be called “Old Testament oracle citations”.


Citation allusion

Citation / Allusion

  • Isaiah 7:14

  • Hebrew: Therefore he-will-give Lord himself to-you sign See! the-young-woman (hā ‘almāh) with-child and-one-bearing son and-she-will-call name-of-him Immanu El

  • Greek (LXX): Behold the virgin (parthenos) in the womb will conceive, and will bring forth a son, and you will call his name Emmanuel.


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • N.B. Original context:

    • doesn’t predict a miraculous birth from a virgin nor the birth of a Messiah centuries in the future

    • is an assurance to King Ahaz that there is negligible danger from an invasion from the north in the late 8th C CE.


Orality

Orality

  • The etymology of the name “Jesus” (Iesous in Greek) does not work in either Greek or Aramaic, but only works in Hebrew (Joshua = “YHWH saves”). This strongly suggests that underlying this etymology is Hebrew language oral version of the story.

  • The author feels the need to translate the term “Emmanuel” into Greek for his readers; this suggests that they are Greek-speakers unfamiliar with Hebrew


Form setting criticism

Form/Setting Criticism

  • What life-setting might have generated the need for Old Testament oracle citations to be attached to gospel narratives?

  • Catechetical or apologetic settings to convince Greek-speaking Jews of the congruence between Jewish history and Christian claims [N.B. Not aimed at Hebrew-speaking Jews since not based on Hebrew text; not aimed at Gentiles since presumably they would not be interested in Jewish prophetic oracles]


Historical criticism

Historical Criticism

  • Triangulate with Luke 1:26ff

  • Mother: named Mary, engaged to Joseph [N.B. 1st C CE Jewish marriage customs], virgin

  • Father: named Joseph, Davidic lineage

  • Son: named Jesus [N.B. After Moses’ assistant]

  • Bracket conception by the Holy Spirit [but parallel other divine conceptions in Greco-Roman religion]; bracket angelic visitations and sayings [but parallel other divine messengers in Jewish and Greco-Roman religion]


Example of poietic analysis of an architectural object

Example of Poietic Analysis of an Architectural Object

  • Rome: S. Maria ad Martyres (The Pantheon)

  • 27 BCE: originally constructed by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa[see the inscription on the façade] / dedicated to Mars, Venus, Julius Caesar

  • 118-128 CE: rebuilt by Hadrian / dedicated to Nature or all the divine powers

  • 202 CE: restored by Septimius Severus and Caracalla


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • 609 CE: Boniface IV, given the building by the Emperor Phocas, dedicates it to Our Lady and All the Martyrs

  • 663 CE: Constans II strips it of bronze

  • 735 CE: Gregory III replaces the bronze with lead

  • 14th C CE: used as fortress and poultry market / restored after Avignon papacy

  • 1623-1644 CE: Urban VIII replaces granite columns and has bell-towers built by Bernini

  • 1857: taken over by Italian state


Analyzing the engager s esthesic analysis

Analyzing the Engager[s]: Esthesic Analysis

  • Exploration of the processes by which a cultural artifact is “received”

  • Artifact as “mirror for the observer”

  • Material processes

    • Preservation, reproduction, distribution of the artifact

  • Non-material processes

    • Meaning(s) co-created by receptor(s)

    • Role(s) of patron(s)

    • Cultural milieu (social class/economic group/gender)


Methods of esthesic analysis

Methods of Esthesic Analysis

  • History of the Effect of the Artifact

  • Psychological Exegesis

  • Symbolic Exegesis

  • Dramatization

  • Liberation Theology and Exegesis

  • Feminist Theology and Exegesis


Example of esthesic analysis of a text

Example of Esthesic Analysis of a Text

  • Matthew 5-7 (“The Sermon on the Mount”)

    • Elitist ethics for those who strive for perfection (monks/nuns)

    • Interim ethics intended only for the short time until the Reign of God was disclosed

    • Private ethics intended only for family and circle of close friends, NOT as a guide for political responsibility

    • Reveals each person’s deep sinfulness and thus need for grace


Interpretation of cultural artifacts

  • Utopian ethics which break through the cycle of violence and enable peace by rigorous demands and strict basic principles

  • Regression into Jewish legalism characteristic of the Gospel of Matthew’s presentation/distortion of Jesus’ message


Example of esthesic analysis of a musical composition

Example of Esthesic Analysis of a Musical Composition

  • Bach: “Gloria Patri” from Magnificat in D

  • Gloria,

  • Gloria Patri,

  • Gloria Filio,

  • Gloria et Spiritui Sancto!

  • Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.


  • Login