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Ch. 1 The Beginnings of Human Society. Section 1: Geography and History. Drill. P. 5 Map Master Activity Identify and Infer Questions. Objectives. Learn what tools are used to understand history Find out about the connections between geography & history. Discussion. Archaeologist

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Ch 1 the beginnings of human society

Ch. 1 The Beginnings of Human Society

Section 1: Geography and History


  • P. 5 Map Master Activity

    • Identify and Infer Questions


Learn what tools are used to understand history

Find out about the connections between geography & history


  • Archaeologist

    • How is an archaeologist like a detective?

Understanding history
Understanding History

  • Before & After Writing

    • Prehistory is the period of time before writing was invented

      • Peoples in SW Asia & Africa developed a system of writing 5,000 years ago

        • History is the written and other recorded events of people

  • Prehistory: Digging up the Past

    • Archaeologists (scientists who examine objects to learn about past peoples & cultures)

      • These objects tell them something about the people who lived there

        • They must piece together clues to find out what happened

Understanding history1
Understanding History

  • History: A Record in Writing

    • Historians study written records of human life & accomplishments to understand a society

      • Also look at what other societies wrote about that society

  • A Record of the Spoken Word

    • Written records often begin as oral traditions (stories passed down by word of mouth)

      • Important because they tell how a society lived & what the people considered important, but not necessarily historically accurate

        • Facts mixed with personal beliefs & exaggerations

Linking geography history
Linking Geography & History

  • Help us understand why historic events took place

    • Weather patters, water supply, land all affects the lives of people who live there

      • Egypt

        • Built on the banks of the Nile

          • Rich soil to grow surplus crops

            • Allowed people to perform other jobs that helped develop the civilization

              • Without Nile & regular flooding, Egyptian civilization would not have been successful or even lasted at all

Reading check
Reading Check

  • Complete Section 1 Reading Check in composition book

    • Label

    • Complete sentences


Scientists believe he lived 5,000 years ago in about 3,000 B.C.

Section 2 prehistory
Section 2: Prehistory

  • Drill

    • P. 9 #1a & 2b

  • Objectives

    • Discover how hunter-gatherers lived during the Stone Age

    • Learn about the beginning of farming

Stone age hunting gathering
Stone Age Hunting & Gathering

  • Earliest Human Culture

    • Stone Age: a period of time during which early humans made lasting tools & weapons mainly from stone

      • Continued for hundreds of thousands of years

      • Divided into 2 periods:

        • Old

          • No farming

          • Almost all of human prehistory

        • Middle

        • New


  • No one knows for sure how they learned to use fire

  • 1,400,000-500,000 years ago

  • First learned how to keep fire going & then how to create it

    • Important step

      • Allowed them to move to areas with colder climates

Settling new areas
Settling New Areas

  • As they developed tools began leaving Africa (one million years ago)

  • Many in Old Stone Age were nomads (people who have no settled home)

  • Over time stretched across globe, eventually reaching Peru in South America about 10,000 B.C.

    • (short DVD clip)

The beginning of farming
The Beginning of Farming

  • Old Stone Age

    • No farming

  • Middle Stone Age

    • Used more refined (advanced) tools

  • New Stone Age

    • Began to farm

    • Not all areas of the world entered each stage at the same time

Early farmers
Early Farmers

  • 11,000 years ago in SW Asia New Stone Age begins when people learned if they planted seeds new crops would grow

    • No longer had to be nomads, but still depended on stone tools

    • Some were pastoral nomads (raised livestock & traveled in search of grazing areas for their animals)

    • Women were responsible for gathering plants & seeds

    • Men still hunted

Farming around the world
Farming Around the World

  • Some places were better for farming than others

    • Fertile soil

    • Water for plants

    • Length of growing seasons

      • People learned this over time

Plant selection
Plant Selection

  • Early plants look different from the same plants today

  • Early farmers choose seeds from the biggest, best-tasting plants

    • Domesticate plants (adapt wild plants for human use)

      • Early corn was only about the size of your pinky

Raising animals
Raising Animals

  • New Stone Age

    • Humans learned to tame wild animals & breed them for human use

      • First domesticated animals may have been dogs

        • Helped with hunting

        • Also domesticated sheep, goats, pigs

          • Ready source of meat, milk, wool

            • Eventually camels, horses & donkeys to carry heavy loads

Challenges of domestication
Challenges of Domestication

  • Human have tried to domesticate many species, but have failed with some

    • Cheetahs (hunting)

    • Wild elephants (for use in battle)

      • Hard to breed in captivity

      • Only a few species of large animals have been suitable to use in agriculture or transportation

Section 3 the beginnings of civilization
Section 3: The Beginnings of Civilization

  • Drill

    • P. 17 #1a, 2a, 2c

  • Objectives

    • Find out about the advantages people gained from settling down in one place

    • Learn about the growth of early cities

    • Understand how the first civilizations formed & spread

Advantages of a settled life
Advantages of a Settled Life

  • Farming was harder work, but greater rewards

  • Sometimes needed to build a system of irrigation (supplying land with water from another place using a network of canals)

    • Steady supply of food year round

      • Surplus (more than what is needed)

        • Enables people to have larger families & population grows (Graph p. 21)

        • Enabled people to do other things besides farm

          • Artisans (worker who is especially skilled in crafting items by hand)

            • Baskets, tools, pottery, cloth

      • No longer had to travel from place to place

Growth of cities
Growth of Cities

  • Likely to develop where fertile soil created surpluses of food

  • People also needed a dependable water source & materials to build shelter

  • Earliest cities grew up along large rivers

    • Nile

    • Tigris

    • Euphrates

    • Huang

    • Indus

Earliest cities
Earliest Cities

  • Larger than farming villages

  • People had a variety of occupations

  • Had large public buildings

    • Stored surplus grains

    • Places to worship gods

    • Places to buy & sell goods

      • As cities grew gov’t formed to keep order, provide services, settle disputes & manage public buildings & irrigation projects

        • (Short DVD clip)

First civilizations
First Civilizations

  • A civilization is a society that has cities, a central gov’t run by official leaders & workers who specialize in various jobs

    • Writing, art & architecture

Bronze age
Bronze Age

  • Artisans learned to mix copper with tin to make bronze

    • May have made this discovery by accident

    • Marks the beginning of the Bronze Age

      • Harder than copper so it made items more durable

        • Used to make weapons, tools, helmets, shields

Trade the spread of ideas
Trade & the Spread of Ideas

  • Traders took valuable items to faraway cities

  • Traded over water too

    • Allowed different cultures to come into contact with each other

      • Goods & ideas began to spread

      • Brought new prosperity to cities

        • Social Classes (next slide)

  • Wheel & axle

    • Allowed goods to be loaded on carts & pushed through the city to market

    • More goods could be transported farther & more easily

Social classes develop
Social Classes Develop

  • Social Class is a group of people having similar backgrounds, incomes and ways of living

    • King most powerful

    • Priests & nobles (gov’t officials & military officers)

    • Artisans, small traders & merchants

    • Common workers & farmers

      • Lowest ranked free members of society

    • Slaves

      • People owned as property working as laborers & servants


  • Pages 25-27

  • Everyone completes:

    • P. 25 #1-6

    • P. 26 Map Master #1-6

    • P. 27 #1-4

    • I will assign each of you another question that will also need to be completed.