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Bacteria. By Diana L. Duckworth Rustburg High School Campbell County. Differences with Eukaryotes. http://bhs.smuhsd.org/bhsnew/academicprog/science/vaughn/Student%20Projects/Paul%20&%20Marcus/Cell_Replication.html. Prokaryotes – no internal cell organization

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Bacteria

Bacteria

By

Diana L. Duckworth

Rustburg High School

Campbell County


Differences with eukaryotes
Differences with Eukaryotes

http://bhs.smuhsd.org/bhsnew/academicprog/science/vaughn/Student%20Projects/Paul%20&%20Marcus/Cell_Replication.html

  • Prokaryotes – no internal cell organization

  • Eykaryotes are 10 x larger than prokaryotes

  • No true multicellular bacteria – cells not specialized

  • Single strand of DNA (circular); eukarya linear

  • Reproduction by binary fission – cell just pinches in two; lengthy process in Eukarya

  • Flagella are more simple; also have pilli

  • Can be either aerobic or anerobic; more diversity in types of metabolism


3 shapes of bacteria
3 shapes of bacteria

  • Bacillus (rod)

  • Coccus (round)

  • Spirillum (spiral)

http://sciences.unlv.edu/desertsurvivors/Pages/episode2.htm


Two types of cell wall
Two types of Cell Wall

  • Distinguished by staining

    • Gram Positive

    • Gram Negative

  • Determines susceptibility to antibiotics

Staphylococcus aureus

Pink – Gram negative

Blue – Gram positive

http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/derm/pages/in06_5.htm


How bacteria obtain energy
How bacteria obtain energy

http://user.uni-frankfurt.de/~schauder/cyanos/cyanos.html

  • Autotrophs

    • Photosynthesis – use light to fix carbon

      • Some are obligate anerobes, others aerobes

      • Cyanobacteria – source of oxygen in atmosphere.

    • Chemosynthesis – energy from ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methane

    • Important in nitrification (ammonia to nitrate)

  • Heterotrophs – important decomposers of dead organisms

    • Rhizobium – nitrogen fixing bacteria in roots of legumes (nitrogen to nitrate)

    • Gangrene

http://abdellab.sunderland.ac.uk/lectures/Parmacology/ANSdoc/serotonin8.html


Bacterial pathogens humans are food
Bacterial Pathogens – humans are food

Anthrax – air borne

http://srs.dl.ac.uk/Annual_Reports/AnRep01_02/anthrax.htm

Vector - fleas

http://webs.wichita.edu/mschneegurt/biol103/lecture14/lecture14.html

http://health.usnews.com/articles/health/2008/01/03/12-diseases-that-altered-history/photos/

Bubonic Plague

www.acponline.org/graphics/bioterro/u_ec.jpg


http://www.jyi.org/features/ft.php?id=102

Lyme Disease

http://gracelings.blogspot.com/2007_07_01_archive.html

Bacterial Toxins (food & water)

Tuberculoses

http://sudanwatch.blogspot.com/2006/03/adra-water-capacity-improvement-in.html

Cholera

Botulism

http://anthropik.com/2006/12/industrial-agriculture-the-e-coli-outbreak/

E. coli

http://letsgoeverywhere.wordpress.com/2007/11/19/i-survived-cholera-epidemic-2007/

http://www.wnysmart.org/botulism.htm


Fighting bacterial infections
Fighting Bacterial Infections

  • Prevention – hygene; especially in food preparation

  • Antibiotics – During WWII – huge advancement

    • Alexander Fleming – Penicillium (fungus) secretes penicillin

    • Different antibiotics effective against different cellular processes

  • Problem – antibiotic resistance; mutations spontaneous & spread

    • Favored by misuse of antibiotics – stopping treatment when feel good, not going entire course

    • Prescribing antibiotics when not effective (e.g. viruses)

    • Benign bacteria can develop mutation & share it with pathogenic bacteria


Useful bacteria
Useful Bacteria

  • Natural in foods – yogurt, cheese, pickles, sourdough bread, buttermilk, etc.

  • Genetically engineered to produce important compounds

  • Engineered to clean up environmental contamination – oil spills

  • Engineered to concentrate low grade ores


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