ICT and its role in rural development. Martyn Warren [email protected] www.martynwarren.co.uk. Lecture 2. Internet and organisations: Business, community and governance. Agenda. The internet and business The internet and community E-governance E-democracy. Internet and business.
Internet and organisations:
Business, community and governance
The internet and business
The internet and community
Internet and business
‘The process of buying and selling or exchanging of products, services and information via computer networks, including the internet’ (Turban, 2000: 4).
Business to Consumer online trading
Most familiar form
Business to Business online trading
Most common form
Closely linked to supply chain management
Expands the marketplace
Allows creation of specialised businesses (niche markets)
Low barriers to entry. Size does not matter.
Easy and cheap advertisement
Improved image, customer service, more flexibility – perhaps….
Helps to meet increasing customer expectations about choice (of product and of associated services)
Opportunity to remove ‘middlemen’ – ‘disintermediation’
Can stimulate rethinking of business processes and business relationships
Cuts cost of transmission and storage of information
Quicker order response – lower working capital costs for selling and purchasing businesses
Easy recording and analysis of customer profile information
‘Keeping up with the Jones’s…’
(‘normative’ or peer pressure)
? insufficient bandwidth (at business and/or consumer end)
integration of web commerce tools with pre-existing business software, hardware and processes
business may need a specialised server
‘…not just buying and selling, but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners, and conducting electronic transactions within an organisation’ Turban 2000: 5.
This term is often used interchangeably with e-commerce, but here implies a business that is built around electronic systems, rather than just incorporating them into its commercial processes.
Willis (2000?) http://www.e-ticaret.gov.tr/KobiSunum/Ankara_slides.ppt#5
(Council of Logistics Management, What is it all about?, Oak Brook, IL, 1986)
‘…the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods and related information from point-of-origin to point of final consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements’
Bryceson (2006) 119
Collaboration (e.g. Facebook group, GoogleDocs
Business software and web services
Communicating within the company
Changing when and where work is done (flexible working)
Cost-effectiveness and efficiency
Ability to attract a higher level of skills.
Job satisfaction and staff morale.
Retention of staff – better work-life balance.
Improved competitiveness, such as reaction to changing market conditions.
Benefits for environment...
Transport – energy, pollution, emissions, congestion.
Air quality – in workplace.
Use of office and home space
Design and location of offices
Occupational health and safety
2004 SUSTEL report
Transport rebounds - for example, when the availability of cars at home because people are no longer commuting results in additional use.
Location rebounds - when people decide to move home, or employers offices, because the need to be at a given location five days a week is less important.
Space rebounds - when savings in office space from hotdesking are offset by individuals gaining more space at home through moving or extending.
Internet and community
Johnson (2000) Dictionary of Human Geography
Keeble, L and Loader, B, Eds. (2001). Community informatics: shaping computer-mediated social relations. London, Routledge. p1
“…exploring the transforming qualities of the new information and communication technologies such as the internet for the development, economic regeneration and democratic stimulation of communities.”
…rich diversity of virtual communities … are forming between normally disparate individuals as a consequence of computer-mediated communication (CMC).
Typically these are communities of shared interest rather than spatially or geographically constructed. (K&L 4)
Email, SMS, instant messaging
Facebook, LinkedIn, Bebo
Providing support to/within existing (place-based) communities;
Extending the reach and effectiveness of existing (interest-based) communities;
Creating new, virtual communities (chat rooms, MySpace…)
Even creating imaginary virtual communities (e.g. secondlife.com)
Chew, LaRoseet al (2011) Use of online social networking by rural youth and its effects on community attachment. Information, Communication and Society, Vol 14, 5, pp726-747
Study in one rural community in USA
On the one hand, social networking takes time which would otherwise be spent on ‘hands-on’ community activity.
On the other hand there are positive effects, including the strengthening of bridging social capital in some cases.
Researchers suggest that community leaders need to embrace social media to encourage youth involvement.
Case Study – online community
The CRoW Act 2000* - What's your opinion?
… I'm a mature final year student and my dissertation is on the CRoW Act so any response is gratefully appreciated (as long as it's clean ) and will help with my research. Thank you for reading and hopefully responding.
*Countryside Right of Way Act, allowing people access to farmed land for walking.
Re: The CRoW Act 2000 - What's your opinion?don20/03/2007 08:20
…. THERE ARE PLENTY OF CHURCH-GOING ROGUES WHO PRETEND .....REPEAT PRETEND.....TO BE UPSTANDING HONEST MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNITY!!!
WHAT A LAUGH!!!
AS I SAID........CHECK OUT SOME OF THE DECISION MAKERS AND CHECK OUT SOME OF THE DECISIONS !!!
WILL THE RAMBLERS BULLY THEIR WAY ALONG THE COAST OF PRINCE CHARLES'S TINTAGEL IN THE DUCHY HE NEVER BOUGHT???? LIKE HELL!!!
WILL THEY BULLY THEIR WAY THROUGH LADY CHARLOTTE TOWNSHEND'S COASTAL LAND AT ABBOTTSBURY , DORSET ???? LIKE HELL!!!
LAW???? WHAT A FARCE!!!! SOME PEOPLE ARE ABOVE THE LAW!!
HOW CAN YOU HAVE EQUITABLE LAW IN A COUNTRY WHICH ALLOWS JUDGES AND BARRISTERS TO BE FREEMASONS??? THE PEOPLE OF THIS COUNTRY ARE BEING JUDGED BY MEMBERS OF A SECRET SOCIETY WHO HOLD GREAT POWER!!!
WHY DO YOU THINK CERTAIN PEOPLE ARE NOT BEING "TRODDEN" ON???
British Farming Forum http://farmingforum.co.uk/forums/showthread.php?t=52118
‘Governance’ is concerned with the distribution and exercise of power as a whole – not just that vested in the state.
Involves not just central and local government, but also non-government agencies, community groups, interest and pressure groups, charities, business groupings, direct activists, and so on.
An overview of e-governance framework
(Afraa Sallowm, based on Okot-Uma 2001; Odendaal 2003; Millard 2003)
Pressurising politicians and officials
Canvassing for conventional elections
Formal voting – elections, referendums
E-petitioning, e-panels, issues forums, politicians’ websites, blogs…
Organisation of protest by activists
Regular, free and fair elections, involving competition between more than one party;
The rule of law, under which all citizens are subject to a common jurisdiction;
Freedom to speak, assemble and publish, and for opposition to the government of the day to organise without fear of intimidation;
Government accountability to the public and responsiveness to public concerns;
The existence of a civil society sector which is free from control by either the state or the market.
Impossibility of vast, dispersed groups being able to participate in collective conversation.
The general public does not have the intellectual capacity to cope with complex issues and sophisticated argument.
Arriving at ‘rationally calculated’ outcomes from collective discussion too difficult.
‘Deliberative democracy’ favours the powerful and articulate.
Kleptocracy: government that uses corruption to facilitate official's power and wealth
Secretary Clinton congratulates K Fighters for Anti-Corruption App
http://www.kfighters.com/ 24 Oct 2010
Wired (UK) December 2009
Many of the images showing anti-government protests in Syria have come from amateur footage posted on the internet.
The order also apparently prohibits the import of iPhones.
UK Parliamentary consultations
Case study: top-down e-democracy
Gather informed evidence from the public
Learn from citizens who might not otherwise be heard;
Enable participants to interact;
Uncover un-anticipated consequences of policy proposals;
Allow policy-makers to participate in discussion
Derive a fair, independent summary of views as evidence to Parliament.
Family taxation and benefits
Stem cell research
Treatment of diabetes
Agricultural , rural and environmental policy
Created a more inclusive environment for discussion;
Needed active promotion and encouragement
Generated and connected networks of interest or practice
High level of interactivity – ‘civilised and productive debates’
Valuable evidence to refine policy proposals.
(Coleman and Blumler 2009)
‘there is a potential conflict between a dialogue that involves a massive amount of views, information and data... and having that put over and recognised in a way that allows a decision to be made.’ (consultee)
(Coleman and Blumler 2009)
‘... both sides have got themselves into a rut. The politicians... “I’ve been elected this way, I don’t see why I should change”... the activists... “well I’m an activist... you just take what I say and do it”
You’ve got to actually appreciate what the other side wants to do and achieve, and work with it.’ [participant in civic engagement scheme]
Case Study: bottom-up democracy
UK community and campaigning website founded in 2000.
The site has hosted webchats with celebrities and politicians, including former Prime Minister Gordon Brown, whose apparent failure to reveal his favourite biscuit was cited in some quarters as evidence of indecisiveness.
[Mumsnet] later explained that he had not actually been asked the question.
In November 2009 newspaper articles spoke of the forthcoming UK general election as "the Mumsnet election”
Mothers were regarded by politicians as key floating voters and online forums were seen as arenas in which their votes could be courted.
Several leading politicians appeared on the website's webchats, and this was widely reported.
The site faced a barrage of publicity, not all of it favourable.
(Coleman and Blumler 2009)
Disconnection – ‘power continues to reside in government agencies, elected legislatures and transnational, intergovernmental bodies.’
‘elusive and ephemeral’ online civic and political networks.
‘autonomous creativity’ of guerrilla activism – can be effective but often ‘destructive and nihilistic’.
Is e-democracy any more effective or fair than traditional representative democracy?
Could it be less fair?
Does our view depend on whether we are on the winning side...?