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Stairways and Ladders For Residential Construction. Disclaimer/Usage Notes. Photos shown in this presentation may depict situations that are not in compliance with applicable OSHA requirements.

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Stairways and Ladders

For Residential Construction

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Disclaimer usage notes
Disclaimer/Usage Notes

  • Photos shown in this presentation may depict situations that are not in compliance with applicable OSHA requirements.

  • It is not the intent of the content developers to provide compliance-based training in this presentation, the intent is more to address hazard awareness in the residential construction industry, and to recognize the overlapping hazards present in many construction workplaces.

  • It should NOT be assumed that the suggestions, comments, or recommendations contained herein constitute a thorough review of the applicable standards, nor should discussion of “issues” or “concerns” be construed as a prioritization of hazards or possible controls. Where opinions (“best practices”) have been expressed, it is important to remember that safety issues in general and construction jobsites specifically will require a great deal of site- or hazard-specificity – a “one size fits all” approach is not recommended, nor will it likely be very effective.

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Disclaimer usage notes1
Disclaimer/Usage Notes

  • No representation is made as to the thoroughness of the presentation, nor to the exact methods of remediation to be taken. It is understood that site conditions vary constantly, and that the developers of this content cannot be held responsible for safety problems they did not address or could not anticipate, nor those which have been discussed herein or during physical presentation. It is the responsibility of the employer, its subcontractors, and its employees to comply with all pertinent rules and regulations in the jurisdiction in which they work. Copies of all OSHA regulations are available from your local OSHA office, and many pertinent regulations and supporting documents have been provided with this presentation in electronic or printed format. This presentation is intended to discuss Federal Regulations only - your individual State requirements may be more stringent.

  • It is assumed that individuals using this presentation or content to augment their training programs will be “qualified” to do so, and that said presenters will be otherwise prepared to answer questions, solve problems, and discuss issues with their audiences.

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Disclaimer usage notes2
Disclaimer/Usage Notes

  • Areas of particular concern (or especially suited to discussion) have additionally been marked with a ? symbol throughout the program…as a presenter, you should be prepared to discuss all of the potential issues/concerns, or problems inherent in those photos particularly.

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Stairways ladders
Stairways & Ladders

Injuries & Fatalities:

  • 24,882 injuries, nearly half (11,570) are lost workday injuries

  • 77 fatalities

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


General requirements
General Requirements

  • A stair or ladder must be provided at a break in elevation of 19” or more

  • Access points kept clear for free passage

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Stairways
Stairways by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Uniform riser height and tread depth

  • Variations not over 1/4 inch for any stairway

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Stairway protection
Stairway Protection by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Stairs must have railings;

    • with 4 or more treads,

    • or more than 30 inches high

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Stairway handrails guardrails
Stairway - Handrails & Guardrails by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Stair rails at least 36” from tread to top of rail

  • Midrails, screens, mesh, etc provided between top rail and the stairway steps

  • If screens/mesh is used, it must enclose entire opening

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Ladders

Extension ladders used at an angle so that the horizontal distance is 1/4the working ladder length

Wood job-made ladders with spliced side rails used at an angle such that the horizontal distance is 1/8the working ladder height.

Ladders

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Too flat
Too Flat distance is 1/4

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Use of all ladders
Use of all Ladders distance is 1/4

  • Use only on stable level surfaces unless secured to prevent accidental movement

  • The area around top and bottom of all ladders shall be kept clear of tripping hazards

  • Ladders never moved, shifted or extended while occupied

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Job made ladders

Job-Made Ladders by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

ANSI 14.4 – 1992

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Side rails
Side Rails by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Stress Grade Lumber

    • #2 Southern Pine

    • #2 Douglas Fir

    • FJL (Finger-joint Lumber) is acceptable

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Rungs
Rungs by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • 1 x 4 Nominal Dimension minimum

    • Knots < ¾ ” Diameter

    • No more than 2 per cleat span

      • No closer than 6” center to center

    • No closer than 1” from top or bottom edge

      OR

  • Use 2 x 4 material

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Cleats
Cleats by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Material tight from rung to rung

    • Can be similar material (1 x 2 or 2 x 2)

    • Flat straps can be used

    • # 9 wire can be stapled

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Fasteners
Fasteners by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Nail Types

    • Plain shank

    • Ring shank

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Attachments
Attachments by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Rungs & Cleats

    • 1 x 4

      • Three, 3” long, 10d Common nails

    • 2 x 4

      • Three, 3 ½” long, 12d Common nails

  • Spacing of nails

    • Stagger ¼” or more

    • At least 1” from edges

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Length
Length by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Maximum length 24’

  • Ladders that extend to landing must have walk-through top section

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Width
Width by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Minimum of 16” between side rails

  • Maximum of 20” between side rails

  • Double ladders can be double widthplus the width of the rails

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Rung spacing
Rung Spacing by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Minimum 8”

  • Maximum 12”

  • Variation + 1/4”

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Use of all ladders1
Use of all Ladders by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Never use metal ladders near exposed energized electrical equipment

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Inspection
Inspection by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Inspected by a competent person for visible defects on a periodic basis

  • Defective ladders tagged “Do Not Use” and removed from service

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Proper use
Proper Use by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • User shall face the ladder when ascending or descending

  • At least one hand shall be grasping the ladder while climbing up or down

  • Employees should not carry a load that could cause them to lose balance

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Step ladders
Step Ladders by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Never use as a straight ladder

    • Used only in open and locked position

  • Cross-bracing on the rear side not used for climbing unless designed for such use

  • The top or top step of a ladder shall not be used as a step

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Use? by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


Questions
Questions? by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter

  • Answers to additional questions can be found in the following source materials

    • 29 CFR 1926 Construction Regulations

    • ANSI Standards

      • ANSI A14.1 Manufactured Wood Ladders

      • ANSI A14.2 Portable Metal Ladders

      • ANSI A14.3 Fixed Ladders

      • ANSI A14.4 Job-Made Ladders

      • ANSI A14.5 Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders

Developed under an OSHA Susan B. Harwood Grant, #46F4-HT01, by the Associated Builders and Contractors-Central Texas Chapter


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