Particles and the Universe
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Particles and the Universe. Peter Kalmus. 170,000 light years. Supernova 1987A. Neutrino numbers Emitted ~ 10 58 Hit Earth ~ 10 29 Hit tank ~ 10 17 Interact ~ 10. Energy release ~ 10 46 J. SN 1987A. Earth. SN ~ 10 46 J. 8 arc min. Large Magellanic Cloud

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Particles and the universe

Particles and the Universe

Peter Kalmus


Particles and the universe

170,000

light years

Supernova 1987A

Neutrino numbers

Emitted ~ 1058

Hit Earth ~ 1029

Hit tank ~ 1017

Interact ~ 10

Energy release ~ 1046 J

SN

1987A

Earth

SN

~ 1046 J


Particles and the universe

8 arc min

Large Magellanic Cloud

Sanduleak - 69o 202


Particles and the universe

LHC

History of the

Universe

T/K

Energy

Tevatron

LEP

16

10

1 TeV

Particle

Era

Era of

10

1 GeV

13

Astronomy

Nuclear

Primordial

Era

Soup

10

1 MeV

10

Atomic

Era

10

1 keV

7

10

1 eV

4

Hot as Hell

445oC = Boiling point of Brimstone

Sun forms

10

1 meV

Time

m

ps ns

s ms s

1 day

1 year

Today

Time since

Big Bang / s

10-12

10-6

100

1013

1018


Particles and the universe

Dark matter

Dark energy

Primordial Soup

CERN style

100 GeV / particle

Ingredients

56% quarks

16% gluons

9% charged leptons

9% W & Z particles

5% neutrinos

2% photons

2% gravitons

1% Higgs bosons

Recipe by Rocky Kolb

Hot 3 x 1015K

Condensed

Missing

ingredients


Particles and the universe

9

8

7

6

iron

nickel

add neutrons

Fusion

Binding energy per nucleon

0 50 100 150 200

Atomic mass (nucleon) number A

Nuclei : how were they made ?

H, He, (Li)

Big Bang

Li, Be, B

Spallation by

Cosmic Rays

Other elements

Inside Stars

Supernova

Q/A MeV

You are all made

of star material !


Particles and the universe

Structure of the Atom

Proton +

Neutron

strong

force

Early 20th Century electron, nucleus

1930s

electric force

electromagnetism

Nucleus

Atom

bunch of

grapes

~ 10-10m

~ 10-15m

town


Particles and the universe

Neutrinos

Feel weak force

“predicted” later discovered

100,000,000,000,000 per second pass

through each person from the Sun

Equal and opposite properties

“predicted” later discovered

Annihilate with normal particles

Now used in PET scans

Antiparticles

Many new particles created

in high energy collisions

1950s, 1960s

Convert energy to mass. Einstein E = mc2

> 200 new “elementary” (?) particles


Particles and the universe

Leptons

(do not feel strong force)

electron e- -1

e-neutrino ne 0

Quarks

(feel strong force)

up u +2/3

down d -1/3

Today’s building blocks

proton = u u d

+2/3 +2/3 -1/3 = +1

neutron = u d d

+2/3 -1/3 -1/3 = 0

First generation

4 particles very simple

multiply by 3 (generations)

multiply by 2 (antiparticles)


Particles and the universe

Today’s building blocks

Leptons

(do not feel strong force)

electron e- -1

e-neutrino ne 0

Quarks

(feel strong force)

up u +2/3

down d -1/3

baryonsq q q

antibary. q q q

mesons q q

Also

antileptons

antiquarks

6 leptons

6 antileptons

6 quarks

6 antiquarks

muon m- -1

m-neutrino nm 0

charm c +2/3

strange s -1/3

tau t- -1

t-neutrino nt 0

top t +2/3

bottom b -1/3


Particles and the universe

Antimatter

Annihilation of

Antigalaxy ?

Telescopes X

Cosmic rays ?

AMS (Space station)

Alfven hypothesis

Earth, Moon, X

Solar system X

Antistars in our Galaxy ?

Other (anti-) galaxies ?

Anti-hydrogen : made in lab

Bulk antimatter ? Where ?

Difficult to detect

Signal ?

e+ + e - g + g

0.511 MeV g-ray “line”

g

g

g

Radiation pressure


Particles and the universe

1 lens

2 lenses

3 lenses

magnifying glass

microscope

no improvement

Constituents

Internal

structure ?

Quantum physics

Particles have wave

properties

Insect

l = h / p

Resolution limited by

wavelength of light l

Relativity

l

~ 5 x 10-7 m

~ 5 x 103 atom

~ 5 x 108 nucleus

high velocities

particle creation

and annihilation

To “probe” elementary particles need

l lower by factor more than 109

E = mc2


Particles and the universe

Accelerator

~

Extract

beam

RF cavities

electric kick

Bending

electro-

magnet

Focusing

electro-

magnet

Vacuum

ring

Injector


Particles and the universe

Anode wires

Anode wires +

Gas

electron

Cathode

Cathode

Tracks of charged particles

from electronic signals

Wire chambers

x coord : wire no. 1 mm

y coord : drift time 0.1 mm

z coord : current few cm

division

Also usually

made of wires


Particles and the universe

Energy

deposited

Depth into calorimeter

Calorimeter

Metal

Scintillator

Waveshifter

Light guides

Photomultiplier

Particle creates a shower.

Scintillation light measures

energy deposited


Particles and the universe

Forces

Electro-

magnetic

atoms

molecules

optics

electronics

telecom.

Weak

beta

decay

solar

fusion

Strong

nuclei

particles

Gravity

falling

objects

planet

orbits

stars

galaxies

short

range

gluon

inverse

square law

photon

short

range

W±, Z0

inverse

square law

graviton


Particles and the universe

of the fundamental

forces of nature

Unification

Faraday, Maxwell

Newton

Electricity

Magnetism

Apples

Planets

Electro-

magnetic

Gravity

Both inverse square law

Can they be unified ?


Particles and the universe

Lightning

The Sun

Two of nature’s four

fundamental forces

Electromagnetism

Weak force

Range ~ 10-18 m

very feeble

Infinite range

fairly strong

Appear very

dissimilar

How can they be

aspects of one force ?

Electrical power

Atoms, molecules

Solar power

Beta decay


Particles and the universe

Weak Interaction: Solar energy

Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) 1862

Gravitational contraction.

Lifetime ~ 30 million years

Nuclear fusion

Lifetime ~ 5 billion years

p + p → d + e+ + ne

[ ~ 1010 y] WEAK

d + p → 3He + g

[ ~ 1 s ] E-M

3He + 3He → p + p + 4He

[ ~ 106 y]STRONG


Particles and the universe

of the fundamental

forces of nature

Unification

Faraday, Maxwell

Newton

Electricity

Magnetism

Apples

Planets

Electro-

magnetic

Gravity

Weak

Strong

Salam, Weinberg, Glashow

Electroweak

unified force

g, W +, W -, Z 0

0 80 80 90 GeV

Do the W and Z particles really exist ?


Particles and the universe

Collider

Inject

anti-

protons

~

RF cavities

electric kick

Bending

electro-

magnet

Carlo Rubbia

Antiprotons

Collide 2

beams

Inside

vacuum

Focusing

electro-

magnet

Simon van der Meer

Stochastic cooling

Inject

protons


Particles and the universe

UA1 Detector at CERN


Particles and the universe

1982. Cryptic message from CERN Directorate:-

“A senior UK person will be visiting CERN. We can’t tell you who, but she is very important”


Particles and the universe

Who are these people with Peter Kalmus ?


Particles and the universe

Carriers of Weak Force

found at CERN

The W boson the hypo

The Discovery of the W Boson

The observation of the W intermediate vector boson, the particle that

carries the weak nuclear force, is the most outstanding achievement

of the CERN laboratory in Geneva and one of the most important

advances in physics of this century. It is the successful conclusion of

carries the weak force which

controls the production of

energy in the Sun and some

The Role of UK Scientists

Twenty-five British scientists played an important part in

the remarkable discovery of the W boson. They were led

by Professor J D Dowell of Birmingham University,

Professor P I P Kalmus of Queen Mary College and Dr A

Astbury of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The W boson


Particles and the universe

“…. I am not sure which is more exciting: the glimpse you have had of the W particle, or the knowledge that Santa Claus really does exist. Anyway, my warm congratulations on a very important discovery, and I am delighted that British scientists were once more in the winning team…..”


Particles and the universe

It is very encouraging that so many British scientists were in the team that discovered the “W boson”, and I would like to congratulate you and your colleagues from Queen Mary College on your success. I am sure that British physicists will be among the first to unify all the four basic forces.


Particles and the universe

Peter Kalmus

Alan Honma

Eric Eisenhandler

Richard Keeler

Reg Gibson

Giordi Salvi

Graham Thompson

Themis Bowcock

W and Z particles discovered

UA1 Collaboration at CERN

Included following members of Queen Mary

Results confirmed by another CERN

collaboration,

and few years later at Fermilab USA

Electroweak unification confirmed

Nature’s fundamental forces

reduced from 4 to 3

Nobel Prizes


Particles and the universe

Higgs

To School of Physics and Astronomy

From Peter Kalmus

Date 4 July 2012

Congratulations to our colleagues in the ATLAS Collaboration for their part in the discovery of the Higgs Boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

I am sorry I wasn't around to help you celebrate, as I was judging schools' "Big Bang" science projects at Duxford Air Museum. However you will be pleased to know that the discovery was mentioned at Duxford.

Cheers. Peter

Talk by Steve Lloyd

Hi Peter,

Thanks! Between us we've discovered 4 of

the 5 fundamental bosons now!

Cheers.Steve Lloyd

et al =

lots of

people

Photon 1905 Explanation of photoelectric effect

Gluon 1979 PETRA e+ e- (DESY)

W 1983 Proton-antiproton Collider (CERN)

Z 1983 Proton-antiproton collider (CERN)

Higgs 2012 Large Hadron Collider (CERN)

Einstein

Steve Lloyd et al

Peter Kalmus et al

Peter Kalmus et al

Steve Lloyd et al


Particles and the universe

If your school or organisation would like a talk on particle physics please contact me

[email protected]

020 7882 5042

The End

Some other talks

“Antimatter”

“The Discovery of the W and Z particles”

“The forces of nature”

“A Century of particle physics”

“Mirror images, and antimatter”

The proton viewed at high mom. transfer


Particles and the universe

Additional material

You meet all sorts of people at CERN


Particles and the universe

8 Nobel Laureates visit CERN in 1962

Cecil

Powell

Isidor

Rabi

Werner

Heisenberg

Ed

Mc Millan

Emilio

Segre

T DLee

Frank

Yang

Robert

Hofstadter


Particles and the universe

37

The Pope visits CERN in 1982


Particles and the universe

Christer Fuglesang, Astronaut. Was one of my students at CERN Summer School in 1986


Particles and the universe

Tim Berners-Lee invented the

World Wide Web at CERN


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