Cell theory
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Cell Theory. All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic unit of life Cells today come only from other living cells. Robert Hooke first saw cells in 1665. The Structure of a Cell. All cells have Plasma membrane Cytosol DNA Ribosomes. Two Major Types of Cells. Prokaryotic

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Cell Theory

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Cell theory

Cell Theory

  • All living things are made of cells

  • Cells are the basic unit of life

  • Cells today come only from other living cells

Robert Hooke first saw cells in 1665


The structure of a cell

The Structure of a Cell

  • All cells have

    • Plasma membrane

    • Cytosol

    • DNA

    • Ribosomes


Two major types of cells

Two Major Types of Cells

  • Prokaryotic

    • No membrane bound organelles

    • Make up Domains Archaea and Eubacteria

  • Eukaryotic

    • Membrane-bound organelles

    • Make up Kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, Protista, and Fungi


A prokaryotic cell

A prokaryotic cell


Overview of an animal cell

Overview of an animal cell

Cytoplasm:

everything inside the cell but the nucleus


Overview of a plant cell

Overview of a plant cell


Cell size

Cell size

The human body has over 5 billion cells. The largest animal is the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus. It is known to reach lengths over 100 feet (30+ meters) and weigh 120 tons.


Cell size1

Cell size

So, why aren’t there organisms composed of one really big cell?


Surface area and volume

Surface Area and Volume

  • Surface area of a sphere = 4r2

  • Volume of a sphere = (4/3) r3

  • So as a sphere gets bigger,

  • its volume increases faster than its surface area


  • Figure 7 5 geometric relationships explain why most cells are microscopic

    Figure 7.5 Geometric relationships explain why most cells are microscopic


    Let s look at the interior of eukaryotic cells

    Let’s look at the interior of Eukaryotic cells…

    • Nucleus

    • Ribosomes

    • Endomembrane System

      • Nuclear envelope

      • Endoplasmic Reticulum

      • Golgi Apparatus

      • Vesicles

      • Lysosomes

      • Vacuoles

    • Other organelles: mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes

    • Cytoskeleton


    Dna rna protein a diagrammatic overview of information flow in a cell

    DNA RNA  protein: a diagrammatic overview of information flow in a cell


    Figure 7 9 the nucleus and its envelope

    Figure 7.9 The nucleus and its envelope 


    Figure 7 10 ribosomes

    Figure 7.10 Ribosomes


    Figure 7 11 endoplasmic reticulum er

    Figure 7.11 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)


    In the rough er proteins are modified by the addition of a carbohydrate group

    In the rough ER, proteins are modified by the addition of a carbohydrate group

    H2N

    COOH

    Protein

    Now = GLYCOPROTEIN

    Carbohydrate group


    Figure 7 12 the golgi apparatus

    Figure 7.12 The Golgi apparatus


    Cell theory

    THE SECRETORY PATHWAY: A MODEL

    RNA

    1. Proteins are synthesized in the RER

    Rough ER

    2. Protein exits RER in a vesicle.

    cis face of Golgi apparatus

    3. Protein travels through the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus.

    4. Protein enters a secretory vesicle that fuses with cell membrane.

    trans face of Golgi apparatus

    Plasma membrane

    5. Protein is secreted from cell.


    Figure 7 13 lysosomes

    Figure 7.13 Lysosomes


    Figure 7 14 the formation and functions of lysosomes layer 1

    Figure 7.14 The formation and functions of lysosomes (Layer 1)


    Figure 7 14 the formation and functions of lysosomes layer 2

    Figure 7.14 The formation and functions of lysosomes (Layer 2)


    Figure 7 14 the formation and functions of lysosomes layer 3

    Figure 7.14 The formation and functions of lysosomes (Layer 3)


    Figure 7 15 the plant cell vacuole

    Figure 7.15 The plant cell vacuole 


    Figure 7 16 review relationships among organelles of the endomembrane system

    Figure 7.16 Review: relationships among organelles of the endomembrane system 


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