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Cell Theory. All living things are made of cells Cells are the basic unit of life Cells today come only from other living cells. Robert Hooke first saw cells in 1665. The Structure of a Cell. All cells have Plasma membrane Cytosol DNA Ribosomes. Two Major Types of Cells. Prokaryotic

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Cell theory
Cell Theory

  • All living things are made of cells

  • Cells are the basic unit of life

  • Cells today come only from other living cells

Robert Hooke first saw cells in 1665


The structure of a cell
The Structure of a Cell

  • All cells have

    • Plasma membrane

    • Cytosol

    • DNA

    • Ribosomes


Two major types of cells
Two Major Types of Cells

  • Prokaryotic

    • No membrane bound organelles

    • Make up Domains Archaea and Eubacteria

  • Eukaryotic

    • Membrane-bound organelles

    • Make up Kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, Protista, and Fungi



Overview of an animal cell
Overview of an animal cell

Cytoplasm:

everything inside the cell but the nucleus



Cell size
Cell size

The human body has over 5 billion cells. The largest animal is the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus. It is known to reach lengths over 100 feet (30+ meters) and weigh 120 tons.


Cell size1
Cell size

So, why aren’t there organisms composed of one really big cell?


Surface area and volume
Surface Area and Volume

  • Surface area of a sphere = 4r2

  • Volume of a sphere = (4/3) r3

  • So as a sphere gets bigger,

  • its volume increases faster than its surface area



  • Let s look at the interior of eukaryotic cells
    Let’s look at the interior of Eukaryotic cells… are microscopic

    • Nucleus

    • Ribosomes

    • Endomembrane System

      • Nuclear envelope

      • Endoplasmic Reticulum

      • Golgi Apparatus

      • Vesicles

      • Lysosomes

      • Vacuoles

    • Other organelles: mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes

    • Cytoskeleton


    Dna rna protein a diagrammatic overview of information flow in a cell
    DNA are microscopic RNA  protein: a diagrammatic overview of information flow in a cell



    Figure 7 10 ribosomes
    Figure 7.10 Ribosomes are microscopic



    In the rough er proteins are modified by the addition of a carbohydrate group
    In the rough ER, proteins are modified by the addition of a carbohydrate group

    H2N

    COOH

    Protein

    Now = GLYCOPROTEIN

    Carbohydrate group



    THE SECRETORY PATHWAY: A MODEL carbohydrate group

    RNA

    1. Proteins are synthesized in the RER

    Rough ER

    2. Protein exits RER in a vesicle.

    cis face of Golgi apparatus

    3. Protein travels through the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus.

    4. Protein enters a secretory vesicle that fuses with cell membrane.

    trans face of Golgi apparatus

    Plasma membrane

    5. Protein is secreted from cell.


    Figure 7 13 lysosomes
    Figure 7.13 Lysosomes carbohydrate group







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