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London School of Science & Technology. Harvard Referencing Guide. The Harvard referencing system. There are many different styles of referencing Harvard system is the most commonly used Advantages Easily recognised by readers

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London School of Science & Technology

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London school of science technology

London School of Science & Technology

Harvard Referencing Guide


The harvard referencing system

The Harvard referencing system

  • There are many different styles of referencing

  • Harvard system is the most commonly used

    Advantages

  • Easily recognised by readers

  • Doesn’t ‘intrude’ upon the page, gives you a bit of information in the text with the full details at the back in the reference list


What is referencing

What is referencing?

  • It is an acknowledgement that you have used the ideas and written materials belonging to other authors

  • It is a method used to demonstrate to your lecturer that you have conducted appropriate research

  • All referencing styles have to parts – the citing and the reference list


Why is it important to reference

Why is it important to reference?

  • To demonstrate to your lecturer that you have conducted thorough research

  • To provide your lecturer with the details of the resources you have used for your assignment

  • To avoid facing academic penalties for plagiarism


What are the penalties for plagiarising

What are the penalties for plagiarising?

  • 0 marks for your assignment

  • A fee of £30 is charged for assignment resubmission

  • The highest possible mark for resubmitted work is a pass


Avoiding plagiarism

Avoiding plagiarism

  • By appropriately acknowledging in your assignment text when you have referred to materials or ideas taken from other authors

  • By including a reference list at the back of your assignment with all the sources you have referred to in your work


2 parts of referencing

2 parts of referencing

Citation

  • This is when you mention the author and year of publication in your assignment text

    Reference list

  • This is a separate document that goes at the back your assignment that lists all the references you used in your assignment


Citation part 1 of referencing

Citation: Part 1 of referencing

The first part of referencing is when you refer to (cite) someone else’s work in your assignment.

Your citation(s) should include:

  • The author or editor’s surname

  • The year of publication


When you are citing you might be

When you are citing you might be

Paraphrasing

Restating information taken from someone else’s work in your own words.

Examples of paraphrasing

Market research is a specialised management tool used for public relations, advertising development, campaign planning and computer systems development (Birn, 2004).

Role theory applied to employee behaviour was first elaborated by Belbin (1996) who suggests that teams work most effectively when they contain members with a range of preferred roles.


When you are citing you might be1

When you are citing you might be

Quoting

Taking the exact words from a source and enclosing it in quotation marks and mentioning the page number the quote comes from

Examples of quoting

The principle of effective stress is ‘imperfectly known and understood by many practising engineers’ (Simons, 2008, p.4).

Stone (2008) states that ‘performance improvement comes about by building on strengths and overcoming weaknesses’ (p.303).


Citation the author

Citation – The author

If there is 1 author

Example:

A recent study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Scholar to find business research (Henderson, 2005).

If there are 2 authors

Example:

A recent study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Scholar to find business research (Henderson & Smith, 2005).

If there are 3 or more authors

Example:

A recent study investigated the effectiveness of using Google Scholar to find business research (Henderson et al, 2005).


Citation the author1

Citation – The author

Citing works by the same author written in the same year

Example:

Competitive markets and demanding customers require updated and refreshed products and services (Slack, 2008a; Slack, 2008b).

Citing a chapter of a book

Some books may contain chapters written by different authors. When citing work from such a book, the author who wrote the chapter should be cited, not the editor of the book.


Citation the author2

Citation – The author

Works with no obvious author

  • If you can’t find an authors name you can use a corporate author name

  • This is often the case for websites, reports and some textbooks

  • If you can’t find either a named or corporate author you can use Anon as the author’s name

    Example:

    Takeovers often benefit the shareholders of an acquired company more than the acquirer (BPP Learning Media, 2010).


Citing secondary references

Citing secondary references

If you come across information cited in an academic work and you cannot find the original source you can use it as a secondary reference.

Example:

According to Ulrich (1997) as cited by Slack et al (2010), there are four specific HR roles that are relevant to operations management including strategic partnership, administrative expertise, change management and championing employees.


Part 2 of referencing writing a reference list

Part 2 of Referencing: Writing a reference list

  • The list should be in alphabetical order by author/editor

  • Books, websites etc are written in a particular format that must be followed

  • Your reference list contains all the items you have cited or directly quoted from


Formatting the reference list

Formatting the Reference List

Printed Book

Author/Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name)

(year of publication)

Title (this should be in italics)

Series title and number (if part of a series)

Edition (if not the first edition)

Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named)

Publisher

Example:

BPP Learning Media (2010) Marketing and promotion. United Kingdom: BPP Learning Media.


Formatting the reference list1

Formatting the reference list

Online/Electronic Book

Author/Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name)

(year of publication)

Title (this should be in italics)

Edition (if not the first edition)

[Online]

Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named)

Publisher

Available at: URL

[date of access]

Example:

Emerson, R. (2009) Business Law, 5th edition.[Online] New York: Barons Education. Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=60TRO4E3o7YC&printsec [Accessed 18th June, 2010].


Formatting the reference list2

Formatting the Reference List

Chapter in an Edited Book

Author of the chapter

(year of publication)

Title of chapter followed by In:

Editor (always put (ed.) after the name)

Title (this should be in italics)

Series title and number (if part of a series)

Edition (if not the first edition)

Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named)

Publisher

Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before a single page number and ‘pp.’ where there are multiple pages)

Example:

Newell, S. (2005) Recruitment and selection. In: Bach, S. (ed.) Managing Human Resources, 4th edition. Massachusetts, USA: Blackwell publishing, pp. 115-148.


Formatting the reference list3

Formatting the Reference List

Journal Article: Print

Author

(year of publication)

Title of journal article

Title of journal (this should be in italics)

Volume number

Issue number

Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’. before the page numbers)

Example

Tan-Solano, M. & Kleiner, B. H. (2001)Effects of telecommuting on organisational behaviour. Management Research News, 24 (3), 72-78.


Formatting the reference list4

Formatting the Reference List

Journal Article: Online/Electronic

Author

(year of publication)

Title of journal article

Title of journal (this should be in italics)

[Online]

volume number

Issue number

Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’. before the page numbers)

Available at: URL

[date of access]

Example:

Tan-Solano, M. & Kleiner, B. H. (2001)Effects of telecommuting on organisational behaviour. Management Research News, 24 (3), 72-78. Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0140-9174&volume.html [Accessed 17th November, 2011].


Formatting the reference list5

Formatting the Reference List

Web page/Website

Author/Editor (use the corporate author if no individual author or editor is named)

(year of publication) (if available; if there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.)

Title (this should be in italics)

[Online]

Available from: URL

[date of access]

Example:

Larson, A. (2010) Contract law – an introduction [Online]. Available at: http://www.expertlaw.com/library/business/contract_law.html [Accessed 23rd November, 2011].


Formatting the reference list6

Formatting the Reference List

Lecture

Name of lecturer

(year of lecture)

Title of lecture (this should be in italics)

[Lecture]

Title of unit/degree course(if appropriate)

Name of institution or location

date of lecture (day month)

Example:

Owen, J. (2010) Defences in tort [Lecture]. London School of Science & Technology, 12th September.


Example of a reference list

Example of a reference list

References

Baron, D. P. (2008) Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson.

BPP Learning Media (2010) Marketing and promotion. United Kingdom: BPP Learning Media

Emerson, R. (2009) Business Law, 5th edition.[Online] New York: Barons Education. Available from: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=60TRO4E3o7YC&printsec [Accessed 18th June 2010].

Encyclopaedia Britannica, (2003). Britannica 2003. [CD-ROM] Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Innovation and growth (2011) Business daily, BBC Radio. 24th November.

Jones, P. (2010) Business regeneration report. RM Business solutions. Report number: 63.

Larson, A. (2010) Contract law – an introduction [Online]. Available from: http://www.expertlaw.com/library/business/contract_law.html [Accessed 23rd November, 2011].

Masters, B. & Goff, S. (2011) Bankers accused of dishonest lobbying. The Financial Times, 23 November, p.1.


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