Preparing For War. The Home Front. Building an Army. Selective Service Act- May 1917 Draft of young men for military service. War to end all Wars=wide acceptance for draft By Nov. 1918, 24 million men had registered American Expeditionary Force (AEF) Volunteers and National Guardsmen
The Home Front
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
Volunteers and National Guardsmen
11,000 women joined as nurses, drivers, and clerks
14,000 served abroad working for the government or private agencies.
AMERICAN EXPEDTIONARY FORCES
General John J. Pershing, commanding general of the AEF. Referred to as the Doughboys and Yanks. 2 million in France by Sept. 1918
Convoy System- system to protect unarmed ships
April 1917- more than 400 Allied and neutral ships sank by Germans.
Shift from peacetime to wartime production.
Regulating food production, coal and petroleum distribution, and railway use.
Government controlled which crops farmers grew, which products industries produced and how supplies was distributed.
War Industries Board (WIB)- Regulated all industries involved in the war.
Food Administration- Headed by Herbert Hoover. Set prices high for wheat to encourage farmers to produce more.
Asked Americans to conserve food as a patriotic gesture.
Wheatless Mon. and Wed. Meatless Tues. and Porkless Thur. and Sat. Saltless Sun.
Fuel Administration- Sponsored gasless days to save fuel.
Daylight Savings Time- Turning clocks ahead to save daylight.
Committee on Public Information (CPI)- Educated public about the causes and nature of the war. Convinced the public that the war was a just cause.
Distributed millions of pamphlets, press releases, posters, and assembled speakers.
Stressed the cruelty of the enemy.
Some believe it illegal intrusion of government.
12% of men who received draft notices did not respond.
Conscientious Objectors- Peoples whose moral beliefs would not allow them to fight in wars.
Jane Addams formed Women’s Peace Party.
Most women supported the war after U.S. joined Allies.
Espionage Act- June 1917. Allowed postal authorities to ban treasonable media from the mail.
Severe penalties for anyone engaged in treasonable activities.
Punishment= $10,000 fine or possibly 20 years in prison. Severe cases = death.
Sedition Act- 1918= Unlawful to use disloyal, profane, or abusive language about the American Government, Constitution or military.
For giving a mild antiwar speech, Eugene V. Debs was imprisoned for 10 years.
CPI propaganda proclaimed the Germans were the worst of the enemies.
U.S. stopped teaching German in schools,
German Measles = liberty measles
Hamburgers= liberty steaks or burgers
Dachshunds= liberty pups
German Americans were required to prove their American loyalty.
Women moved into the workforce as men went to war.
Worked in factories, on r.r., telegraph operators, trolley conductors.
Some joined Red Cross, worked as doctors, nurses, ambulance drivers, clerks.
Won 19th Amendment in 1920.
Many enlisted in the army.
Great Migration- Movement of African Americans to the North from the South.
Moved b/c of racism, economic advancement, better futures.
Most were in the West working as ranchers and farmers.
Came from Mexico for many of the same reasons that African Americans moved North.
Last months of the war and it killed more people than the war all together.
Death rates in some camps was 32%
30 million people worldwide