Parenteral medication administration
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Parenteral Medication Administration. 1413. Ethical – Legal Factors. Right to refuse Liability Nerve Damage Into a vein or artery Infiltration / Extravasation Tissue Damage Unapproved site Dorsal Gluteal may be unacceptable at your facility. Minimize Discomfort.

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Ethical – Legal Factors

  • Right to refuse

  • Liability

    • Nerve Damage

    • Into a vein or artery

    • Infiltration / Extravasation

    • Tissue Damage

    • Unapproved site

      • Dorsal Gluteal may be unacceptable at your facility


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Minimize Discomfort

  • Position muscle for relaxed tone

  • Distraction with conversation & instructions, visual imagery, relaxation techniques

  • Dart-like quick entry for smooth tissue separation (it’s in the wrist action!!)



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Safety Considerations

When preparing multiple injections, always label the syringe immediately

Keep the medication container with the syringe

Do not rely on memory to determine which solution is in which syringe

Carefully monitor the patient for any adverse effects for at least 5 minutes after administration of any medication

Handle multi-dose vials carefully and with aseptic technique so that medicines are not wasted or contaminated


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What’s Sterile

When can contamination occur?

How can contamination be avoided?



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Injection Sites - Deltoid

Location: upper arm

Landmarks: Acromion Process, axillary fold

Muscle mass: triangle apex at axillary line and base of triangle 2-3 finger breadths below acromion process.

Injection area: in the middle of the triangle / into belly of the muscle mass. Avoid Brachial artery & Radial nerve (BARN)

http://www.austincc.edu/health/rnsg/skills/injectionSites.htm


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Deltoid

  • Should not be used in infants or children because of the muscle’s small size.

  • Injection volume should not exceed 1ml in the adult

  • Use a 23-28 gauge, 5/8 to 1 inch needle

  • Rarely used for hospitalized patients. Primarily used for immunizations.


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Injection Sites - Ventrogluteal

Location: lateral (ventral) side of the hip

Landmarks: Iliac crest, anterosuperior illiac spine, greater trochanter of femur

Muscle mass: Gluteus medius and minimus

Injection area: opposing palm of hand over greater trochanter, middle finger pointed toward the iliac crest, index finger toward anterosuperior iliac spine. Inject into the triangle created by these fingers. No major vessels / nerves.



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Vastus Lateralis

Location: anterolateral aspect of the thigh

Landmarks: greater trochanter, lateral femoral condyle

Muscle mass: vastus lateralis muscle

Injection area: between one handbreadth below the greater trochanter and one handbreadth above the knee. Width of area is from the midline on the anterior surface of the thigh to midline on the lateral thigh. Best to inject into outer middle third of the thigh.

No major vessels or nerves to avoid.


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Vastus Lateralis

  • Identify the greater trochanter and the lateral femoral condyle

  • Select the site using the middle third and the anterior lateral aspect of the thigh.


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Dorsal Gluteal Most Dangerous site, Trend is away from use

  • Location: Upper lateral aspect of the buttock

  • Landmarks: Posterior superior iliac spine, greater trochanter

  • Muscle mass: Gluteus maximus muscle

  • Injection area: Draw an imaginary line between the anatomic landmarks listed above. Administer the injection lateral and slightly superior (2 inches) to the midpoint of this line.

    Avoid the sciatic nerve & superior gluteal artery



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Z - track

  • Seals the medication into the muscle tissue.

  • Minimizes subcutaneous tissue irritation from tracking of the medication as the needle is withdrawn.

  • Used more frequently now to decrease discomfort and pain.

  • Used for irritating medications (Vistaril) and tissue staining meds (iron dextran –Imferon).

  • Use in ventrogluteal or dorsogluteal sites


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Z - track: An intramuscular injection technique designed to deposit medications deep into muscle tissueRelease the lateral slide of tissue ONLY after needle has been completely withdrawn.


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Subcutaneous (SC or SQ)

  • Common drugs given SQ:

    • Anticoagulants

    • Insulin

    • Erythropoitic agents

    • Some Analgesics (-caine type drugs)


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Injection Technique - Anticoagulants

  • Heparin

    • Always lookup and read about med prior to administration

    • Check dosage carefully: some policy req. 2nd nurse

    • Requires drawing up from vial; needs air lock

    • Abdomen SQ area only; deep into tissue

    • No aspiration; no massage after withdrawal due to risk of precipitating bleeding

    • Rotate sites


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Anticoagulant Injection Technique

  • Lovenox (enoxaparin sodium)

    • Look up med prior to administration

    • Commonly dispensed in pre-filled syringe

    • Safety syringe: firmly depress plunger AFTER removal from tissue to activate safety seal




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Intradermal

  • Drugs that are intradermally injected are agents for diagnostic determinations, desensitization, or immunization.

  • For this route of administration, 0.1 ml of solution is the maximum volume that can be administered.

  • Document date, time, and location of ID site in med record; include projected date to be “read’




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