Medical parasitology lab
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Medical Parasitology Lab. . Prepared By: Mr. Raed Z. Ahmed. Staining of Parasites. Intestinal Protozoa . Cryptosporidium parvum. Cryptosporidium parvum. Infect human and most mammals. The infective stage is oocyst containing sporozoites measuring 4-6µ in diameter.

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Medical Parasitology Lab.

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Medical parasitology lab

Medical Parasitology Lab.

Prepared By:

Mr. Raed Z. Ahmed

Staining of Parasites

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Cryptosporidium parvum

Intestinal Protozoa

Cryptosporidium parvum

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Cryptosporidium parvum1

Cryptosporidium parvum

  • Infect human and most mammals.

  • The infective stage is oocyst containing sporozoites measuring 4-6µ in diameter.

  • The diagnostics stage is sporulatedoocyst containing 4 sporozoites.

  • Diagnosis:

    • Detecting oocyst in stool.

    • Acid-fast stain.

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst

Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst

  • The most common method of diagnosing Cryptosporidiosis is acid-fast staining methods or the Ziehl-Neelsen stain.

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Isospora belli

Intestinal Protozoa

Isospora belli

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Isospora belli1

Isospora belli

  • Isosporiasis is a human intestinal disease caused by the parasite Isospora belli.

  • The coccidian parasite Isospora belli infects the epithelial cells of the small intestine, and is the least common of the three intestinal coccidia that infect humans.

  • Infection causes acute, non-bloody diarrhea with crampy abdominal pain, which can last for weeks and result in malabsorption and weight loss. In immunodepressed patients, and in infants and children, the diarrhea can be severe. Eosinophilia may be present.

  • Diagnosis:

    • Acid- fast stain

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Isospora belli oocyst

Isospora belli oocyst

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Trichinella spiralis

Tissue Nematodes

Trichinella spiralis

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Life cycle

Life cycle

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Trichinella spiralis1

Trichinella spiralis

  • Cause trichinosis, trichiniasis or trichinelliasis..

  • Adult inhabit the small intestine of the rats, pigs and human. Both males and females lie freely in the lumen of the intestine of pigs, rats and human.

  • Fertilized female only penetrate the mucosa where the larviposit, they do not lay eggs.

  • Larvae is the infective stage, live encysted in the flesh of the host, and they represent the diagnostic stage.

  • Human infected by eating undercooked pork containing infective encysted larvae.

  • Human is dead end host.

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


C ontinue

Continue………..

  • Diagnosis:

    • Finding larvae in the blood during migration or in muscle after encystation.

    • Immunological tests.

    • X- ray to detect the calcified larvae in muscle.

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Trichinella spiralis larvae encysted in muscle

Trichinella spiralis larvae encysted in muscle

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Entrobius vermicularis

Intestinal Nematodes

Entrobius vermicularis

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Life cycle1

Life cycle

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Entrobius vermicularis1

Entrobius vermicularis

  • Also named as human pin worm and seat worm, cause oxyurdiasis.

  • Young and mature worms are present in small intestine (at terminal ileum till fertilization).

  • Gravid females are present at lower rectum where they lay ova at perianal region around anus (oviparous).

  • The female is 0.88-1.3 cm long, it has a long tapering tail resembling 1/3 its length, its strait.

  • The male is shorter than female (2-5 mm) the tail is curved strongly to ventral side, and has a single spicule.

  • Infective stage: Embryonated Eggs.

  • Definitive host: human.

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Continue

Continue………

  • Diagnosis:

    • Egg in stool is rarely detected but adults present after purgative.

    • Egg can be detected at perianal area as follow:

      • N.I.H method (National Institute of Health), its based on swabbing the perianal area with a cellophane paper.

      • The adhesive cellulose tape (scotch tape), better result.

      • The Vaseline cloth wiping, the collected ova examined.

  • Egg morphology:

    • 20-50u, transparent with double walled shell, it may show one side convex and the other flat.

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Entrobius vermicularis eggs

Entrobius vermicularis Eggs

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Entrobius vermicularis adult

Entrobius vermicularis Adult

female

male

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Trichuris trichiura

Intestinal Nematodes

Trichuris trichiura

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Life cycle2

Life cycle

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Trichuris trichiura1

Trichuris trichiura

  • Its commonly called whip worm because of the shape of this worm (anterior thin and posterior thick).

  • Adult inhabit the large intestine in the caecum of man.

  • The adult male smaller than female, male 3.4-4.5 cm, female 4-5 cm.

  • Trichuris trichiura eggs have distinct shape. (oviparous)

  • Diagnosis:

    • Stool examination to detect eggs.

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Trichuris trichiura eggs

Trichuris trichiura Eggs

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Trichuris trichiura adult

Trichuris trichiura Adult

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Strongyloides stercoralis

Intestinal Nematodes

Strongyloides stercoralis

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Life cycle3

Life cycle

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Strongyloides stercoralis1

Strongyloides stercoralis

  • Adults lives in the small intestine (duodenum and jejunum), fertilized females are deeply embedded in the mucosa, where they also oviposit.

  • Male have a pointed curved tail associated with two spicules.

  • Female have straight tail without spicules.

  • In contrast to the Anclystomaspp., both sexes have short buccal cavity.

  • Infective stage: Filariform larvae.

  • Diagnosis:

    • Based on recovery of the rhabditiform larvae passed in stool.

    • If diarrhea is present, eggs may also be recovered.

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Strongyloides stercoralis larvae

Strongyloides stercoralis Larvae

Rhabditiform

Filariform

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


S stercoralis adult male

S. Stercoralis Adult Male

spicules

spicules

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


S stercoralis adult female

S. Stercoralis Adult Female

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Ancylostoma duodenale

Intestinal Nematodes

Ancylostoma duodenale

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Life cycle4

Life cycle

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Ancylostoma duodenalae hookworm

Ancylostoma duodenalae (Hookworm)

  • Inhabit human intestine ( jejunum, ileum, and rarely duodenum ) and cause Anclystomiasis.

  • Male shorter than female and have copulatory bursa and two spicules.

  • Female is long and has pointed end.

  • Both sexes have long buccal cavity with two pairs of teeth.

  • Infective stage: Filariform larvae.

  • Diagnosis:

    • Based on finding ova in fresh stool sample.

    • In old sample, larvae present and must be differentiated from larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Hookworm eggs

Hookworm Eggs

Hook worm eggs like insects or mites egg, therefore must be differentiated

Mites egg

Plant material

Hook worm egg

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Hookworm larvae

Hookworm Larvae

Filariform

Rhabditiform

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Hookworm adult

Hookworm Adult

Female

Male

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Ancylostoma duodenalae copulatry burasa

Ancylostoma duodenalae copulatryburasa

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Ancylostoma duodenalae buccal capsule

Ancylostoma duodenalae buccal capsule

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Comparison between ancylostoma duodenalae and necator americanus

Comparison between Ancylostoma duodenalae and Necator americanus

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Medical parasitology lab

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Copulatory bursa vs copulatory spicules

Copulatory bursa vs Copulatory Spicules

Ancylostoma duodenalae copulatory spicules

Necator americanus copulatory spicules

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


Comparison between s stercoralis and hookworm

Comparison between S. stercoralis and Hookworm

Raed Z. Ahmed, Medical Parasitology Lab.,2012-2013


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