Escoamento Superficial: Vazão, Hidrógrafa, Inundações,
Download
1 / 55

Escoamento Superficial: Vazão, Hidrógrafa, Inundações, Modelos hidrológicos - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 82 Views
  • Uploaded on

Escoamento Superficial: Vazão, Hidrógrafa, Inundações, Modelos hidrológicos. modified from www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/chap1.html. Figure 1.18. Q - Volume de água passando por um ponto por unidade de área Q=VA ou WDV. www.aquatic.uoguelph.ca/rivers/chphys.htm. Vazão e hidrógrafa.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Escoamento Superficial: Vazão, Hidrógrafa, Inundações, Modelos hidrológicos' - lara-morse


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

modified from www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/chap1.html

Figure 1.18

  • Q - Volume de água passando por um ponto por unidade de área

  • Q=VA ou WDV




Hidrógrafa de evento

Figure 1.14

www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/chap1.html


Figure 1.15

http://www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/Images/scrhimage/chap1/fig1-15.jpg

Efeitos da urbanização em uma hidrógrafa de evento


Fig. - 2.10

www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/chap1.html

Caminhos do escoamento superficial


Escoamento superficial

  • Ocorrem quando solos

    • Estão saturados (após pesada chuva)

    • Possuem baixa permeabilidade (ex. argila)

  • Fortemente influenciado pela paisagem e uso da terra

    • Região de exposição de rochas e base de lagos são impermeáveis ou tem baixa permeabilidade

    • Superfícies impermeáveis (estacionamentos) gera superfícies impermeáveis

    • Práticas de atividades florestais e agrícolas afetam o fluxo dos sistemas de drenagem


Características Físicas que Afetam o Escoamento

  • Declividade

  • Topografia

  • Direção de orientação

  • Padrão de drenagem

  • Presença de lagos, reservatórios

  • Uso da Terra

  • Vegetação

  • Tipo de Solo

  • Área de drenagem

  • Forma da bacia

  • Altitude


www.aquatic.uoguelph.ca/rivers/chphys.htm

Inundações

  • Nós tendemos a ver inundações como eventos não previsíveis e desastrosos. De fato inundações podem ser previsíveis e são ocorrências necessárias.

  • Como a superfície impermeável afeta a probabilidade de inundações?


  • Intervalo de Recorrência

    • “1 em 100 anos de inundação”

    • = probabilidade de 0.01 ou 1%

    • Também referido como intervalo de recorrência

    • Definido como P = 1 / T, onde:

      • P = Probabilidade de Inundação

      • T = Intervalo de Recorrência


Influência humana sobre as inundações

www.aquatic.uoguelph.ca/rivers/chphys.htm

  • Rápido escoamento em rios canalizados aumenta a frequencia de inundações e o pico na hidrógrafa em pontos a jusante


Associando Uso da Terra com a Qualidade da Água

Menos Superfície Impermeável = Mais Água


Superfície Impermeável

  • Fornece uma superfície para acumulação de poluentes

  • Leva ao aumento dos poluentes via escoamento e inundação

  • Inibe a recarga dos aquíferos


Impactos das mudanças do uso da terra

  • Efeitos Hidrológicos

    • Ruptura do balanço natural da água

    • Aumento do pico de inundação

    • Aumento do escoamento superficial

    • Maior frequencia de inundações


www.mmsd.com/stormwaterweb/Volume1B.htm

Escoamento superficial e desenvolvimento


The Importance of Spatial Patterns

Surface hydrologists have recognized the importance of spatial patterns of runoff generation, particularly as driven by topography (e.g. TOPMODEL, SHE, InHM, POWER, ……)

But numerical experiments suggest that even small rates of recharge to deeper layers can dramatically influence patterns of wetness


Gis in water resources consortium

Bringing together these two communities by using a common geospatial data model

http://www.crwr.utexas.edu/giswr

GIS

Water Resources

CRWR

GIS in Water Resources Consortium


Arcgis hydro data model
ArcGIS geospatial data modelHydroData Model

Hydrology

Hydrography

Maidment, 2002


National hydro data programs http www crwr utexas edu giswr nhdconf nationalhydro html
National Hydro Data Programs geospatial data modelhttp://www.crwr.utexas.edu/giswr/nhdconf/nationalhydro.html

National Elevation Dataset

(NED)

National Hydrography Dataset

(NHD)

Elevation Derivatives for

National Applications (EDNA)

Watershed Boundary Dataset


Streams geospatial data model

Drainage Areas

Hydrography

Channels

Terrain Surfaces

Rainfall Response

Digital Orthophotos

Thematic

Layers

supporting the

Arc Hydro

data model

Michael Zeiler

“Modeling Our World”


How do we combine these data
How do we combine these data? geospatial data model

Digital Elevation

Models

Streams

Watersheds

Waterbodies

Maidment, 2002


An integrated raster vector database
An integrated geospatial data modelraster-vector database

Maidment, 2002


Integrating data inventory using a behavioral model
Integrating Data Inventory using a Behavioral Model geospatial data model

Relationships between

objects linked by tracing path

of water movement

Maidment, 2002


Intrinsic hydrologic modeling
Intrinsic Hydrologic Modeling geospatial data model

  • Dr Tarboton

    • DEM-based hydrologic modeling

  • USGS

    • Stream Stats

  • Mean annual flows and pollutant loads

http://ststdmamrl.er.usgs.gov/streamstats/expert.htm


Dynamic linked library
Dynamic Linked Library geospatial data model

Can have

Fortran

subroutines

in a DLL

Muskingum

flow routing

Maidment, 2002


Independent Hydrologic Model geospatial data model

VB progam reads and writes

text files

Maidment, 2002


Analysis, Modeling, geospatial data model

Decision Making

Arc Hydro

Geodatabase

Interfaces to Arc Hydro Data and Models

Excel

ArcGIS

Relational Database

(Access)

Visual Basic

Maidment, 2002


Three basic water problems
Three basic water problems geospatial data model

  • Too little water (Drought and water supply)

  • Too much water (Flooding)

  • Its dirty (Water Quality)

Also have significant GIS effort on environmental issues related to water such as habitat assessment

Maidment, 2002


1996 texas drought
1996 Texas Drought geospatial data model

  • George W. Bush, (then Governor of Texas) asked: “Tell me how much water we have, how much water we’re using and how much water we need”

  • State water officials did not have adequate answers

Maidment, 2002


Texas water planning
Texas Water Planning geospatial data model

  • 1997 Texas Legislature passed Senate Bill 1 which provided for

    • State-wide geospatial data development (topography, hydrography, land use, soils and orthophotos)

    • Water planning in 14 regions rather than state-wide

    • Assessment of water availability for all water permits

Maidment, 2002


Hydrologic cataloging units hucs
Hydrologic Cataloging Units (HUCS) geospatial data model

Hydrologic Unit Code

= 12100203

Guadalupe Basin

(4 HUC’s)

  • 2015 HUC’s cover continental US

  • average area ~ 1 county

Maidment, 2002


Water availability in the guadalupe basin

Stream Gauge (14) geospatial data model

Water Diversion (440)

Water Availability in the Guadalupe Basin

Estimate water availability at each legally permitted water diversion point based on “naturalized” flow at stream gages and the effects of other permitted diversions

Maidment, 2002


Digital elevation model
Digital Elevation Model geospatial data model

San Marcos basin

National Elevation Dataset

30m x 30m cells

11,000,000 cells to cover San Marcos basin

70,000,000 cells to cover Guadalupe basin

Maidment, 2002


Drainage area delineated from the digital elevation model
Drainage Area Delineated from the Digital Elevation Model geospatial data model

Arc Hydro attribute DrainArea

Maidment, 2002


Estimating naturalized flow at diversion points

A geospatial data modeld

Af

Qd = Qf

Estimating Naturalized Flow at Diversion Points

Naturalized flow record at stream gage

(50 years of monthly flows)

Qf

Af

Qd

Estimated flow record at diversion point

Ad

Maidment, 2002


Length downstream
Length Downstream geospatial data model

Flow distance (D to F)

= Length Downstream (D)

– Length Downstream (F)

Length Downstream (F)

F

D

D

Seepage

losses

F

Arc Hydro attribute LengthDown

Length Downstream (D)

Maidment, 2002


Flood hydrology and hydraulics
Flood Hydrology and Hydraulics geospatial data model

ArcView

Input Data

DEM

ArcView

Flood

plain maps

HEC-GeoHMS

Hec-GeoRAS

HEC-RAS

Water

surface

profiles

HEC-HMS

Flood

discharge

Maidment, 2002


Stream definition waller creek
Stream Definition: Waller Creek geospatial data model

Austin Watersheds with Streamsderived from Aerial Photographs

Streamlines generated by the aerial photographs are not always continuous.

Maidment, 2002


Information for correcting stream network
Information for Correcting Stream Network geospatial data model

  • DEM

  • Contours

  • Storm sewers

  • Orthophotos

Maidment, 2002


Resulting corrected stream
Resulting Corrected Stream geospatial data model

  • Subsequent steps:

  • Verification of corrected streams by flood hydrologists.

  • Running “tracer” program to connect arcs.

  • Burning of streams into DEM.

Maidment, 2002


Area to stream outlet connectivity
Area to Stream Outlet Connectivity geospatial data model

Maidment, 2002


Area to sewer inlet connectivity
Area to Sewer Inlet geospatial data modelConnectivity

Maidment, 2002


Area to area connectivity schematiclinks built using nextdownid
Area to Area Connectivity: geospatial data modelSchematicLinks built using NextDownID

Maidment, 2002


Tiwss texas integrated water simulation system
TIWSS geospatial data modelTexas Integrated Water Simulation System

WRAP

Water Availability

SWAT

Water Quality

Arc Hydro

Geospatial and Temporal Data

Modflow

Groundwater

HEC Models

Flooding & Water Management

Maidment, 2002


Flood plain mapping
Flood Plain Mapping geospatial data model

Maidment, 2002


Connecting hms and ras
Connecting HMS and RAS geospatial data model

Maidment, 2002


Flood hydrology and hydraulics1
Flood Hydrology and Hydraulics geospatial data model

ArcView

Input Data

DEM

ArcView

Flood

plain maps

HEC-GeoHMS

Hec-GeoRAS

HEC-RAS

Water

surface

profiles

HEC-HMS

Flood

discharge

Maidment, 2002


Hec ras background
HEC-RAS: geospatial data modelBackground

  • River Analysis System model of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  • Input = cross-section geometry and flow rates

  • Output = flood water elevations

Cross-Section Schematic

Maidment, 2002


Waller creek
Waller Creek geospatial data model

Watersheds

Network

Channel

Maidment, 2002


Hec ras cross section description
HEC-RAS: geospatial data modelCross-Section Description

  • Points describe channel and floodway geometry

  • Bank station locations

  • Water surface elevations and floodplain boundaries

Maidment, 2002


Discharge at a particular cross section
Discharge at a Particular Cross-Section geospatial data model

Maidment, 2002


Hec ras output
HEC-RAS: geospatial data modelOutput

Graphical

Text File

Maidment, 2002


Floodplain mapping plan view
Floodplain Mapping: geospatial data modelPlan View

Maidment, 2002


3d terrain modeling ultimate goal

3D Terrain Modeling: Ultimate Goal geospatial data model

Maidment, 2002


ad